Heavy Metals Leaching of Cementitious Matrices Containing Waste Ash from Brazzaville Landfills (Republic of Congo)

Main Article Content

K. M. Mbemba
M. B. Mabiala Loubilou
J. M. Ouamba

Abstract

Inadequate management of ash generated by household waste burned in open air in Republic of Congo, generates pollution sites especially through heavy metal contamination (Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn). The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical durability of cementitious matrices containing waste ashes and their ability to retain in their structure heavy metals contained in these ashes. To do this, we collected 40 kg of waste coming from 4 landfills (A, B, C, D) in Brazzaville city. Waste was then burned and turned into ash. 6 cementitious matrice formulations (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6) based on Dolisie Portland cement were made by varying the cement/ash/lime rations. We carried out static leaching tests with raw ashes and cementitious matrices at pH = 7 and at 25°C in distilled water during 30 days. This study shows that cementitious matrices containing ash have good potentiality for retention of heavy metals (more than 75%). But, cementitious matrices containing ash and lime give better results with retention rates between 90-99%.

Keywords:
Heavy metals, cement, ash, leaching, stabilization, solidification.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mbemba, K. M., Mabiala Loubilou, M. B., & Ouamba, J. M. (2019). Heavy Metals Leaching of Cementitious Matrices Containing Waste Ash from Brazzaville Landfills (Republic of Congo). International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 20(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/irjpac/2019/v20i230130
Section
Original Research Article

References

Calo F, Parise M. Waste management and problems of groundwater pollution in Karst environments in the context of a post-conflict scenario: The case of Mostar (Bosnia Herzegovina). Habitat International. 2009;33:63-72.

Ngolo B, Nanga-Maniane J. National Report: Situation analysis and health and environment needs assessment for the implementation of the Libreville declaration. Republic of Congo; 2010.

Javad Asgari M, Safavi M, Mortazaeinezahad F. Landfill biogas production process. International Conference on Food Engineering and Biotechnology IPCBEE IACSIT Press, Singapoore. 2011;9.

Grundfelt B, Hoglund LO. Somes views on effect of different types of barriers in waste deposits round water quality. Remediation and Protection. In Proceeding of the Prague Conference. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Publication N°225. 1995;347-354.

Khattabi H, Lotfi A, Mania J. Evaluation of leachate impact of a household landfill for the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of the Franche Comté stream water. Waste Science and Technology. 2002;24:1-4.

Abbou MB, El Haji M, Zemzami M, Fadil F. Impact of leachate from the Taza dump in water resources (Morocco). Afrique Science. 2014;10(1):171-180.

Hiller E, Bartal M, Milička J, et al. Environmental fate of the herbicide MCPA in two soils as affected by the presence of wheat ash. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2009;197(1-4):395-402.

Hiller E, Fargašová A, Zemanová L, et al. Influence of wheat ash on the MCPA immobilization in agricultural soils. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2008;81(3):285-8.

Qiu Y, Cheng H, Xu C, et al. Surface characteristics of crop-residue-derived black carbon and lead (II) adsorption. Water Res. 2008;42(3):567-74.

Bouchelaghem A. Stabilization and solidification of special industrial waste. Technique, Science and Methods. 1994;4: 9-13.

Conner JR. Chemical fixation and solidification of hazardous wastes. New-York: Van Nostand Reinhold. 1990;692.

Belebchouche C, Moussaceb K, Hammoudi A, Tahakourt A. Immobilization of heavy metal-rich wastes in the structure of cementitious materials: Case of the Saniak unit. Third International Conference on Energy, Materials, Applied Energy and Pollution, 30-31 October, Constantine, Algeria; 2016.

Alexander M, Bertron A, De-Belie N. Performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments. RILEMTC 211-PAE Springer; 2013.

Water and Urban Development Project (WUDP). Technical report: Social environmental impact study for the rehabilitation works and / or construction of roads and drainage systems in the cities of Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. 2010;96.

National Agency of Civil Aviation (ANAC). Brazzaville climate: Temperature, climate graph, climate table for Brazzaville; 2017.

SCAS/DGS. National plan of health development of Congo. Ministry of Health; 2008.

Malviya R, Chaudhary R. Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2006;B137:267-76.

Hermanns Stengele R, Moser R. Landfill leachate discharge requirements. Recommendations for assessment, treatment and spill. Federal Office for the Environment, Bern. The Practical Environment. 2012;1223:62.

El Kharmouz M, Sbaa M, Chafi A, Saadi S. Study of impact of leachates from former dump of the city of Oujda (Eastern Morocco) on the physicochemical quality of groundwater and surface water. Larhyss Journal, ISSN 1112-3680. 2013;16:105-119.

Imyim A. Environmental assessment methodology for stabilized / solidified waste by hydraulic binders. PhD Thesis of the National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon; 2000.

Tranchessec R, Mechling JM, Lecomte A, Roux A, Le Rolland B. Impact of lime in a mixture of Portland cement and sulfoaluminous cement. Thirteenth Edition of the Scientific Days of the Francophone Group for Research and Training on Concrete. Lyon, 5-6 July, France; 2012.

De Windt L, Badreddine R. Modelling of long-term dynamic leaching tests applied to solidified/stabilized waste. Waste Management. 2007;27:1638-1647.

Chen QY, Tyrer M, Hilles CD. Immobilisation of heavy metal in cement-based solidification/stabilization: A review. Waste Management. 2009;29:390-403.

Diet JN. Stabilization / solidification of waste: Disruption of the hydration of Portland cement by the substances contained in metal hydroxide sludge. Doctoral Thesis. National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon, 170; 1996.