International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry http://journalirjpac.com/index.php/IRJPAC <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ISSN: 2231-3443)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications in all aspects&nbsp; of pure and applied chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and genetics, inorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of solids, liquids, polymers and interfaces between different phases, neurochemistry, nuclear chemistry, modern transmutation, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, astrochemistry and cosmochemistry, quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry, sonochemistry, agrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, femtochemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry,&nbsp; mechanochemistry, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, radiochemistry, synthetic chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, thermochemistry, chemistry in industry and interactions between chemistry and environment.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2231-3443 Soil Phase: Base for Deriving Land Capability Class and Crop Suitability http://journalirjpac.com/index.php/IRJPAC/article/view/30139 <p>A detailed land resource study of Gadagi-2 micro watershed, Lingasusgur taluk, Raichur district, Karnataka state, India, was carried out during summer 2017, at the scale of 1:8000 using cadastral map overlaid on IRS Cartosat-1 merged with LISS IV satellite imagery. Initially, a detailed survey was carried out to derive soil phase units based on land surface and profile characters. Five soil series were identified and mapped into five soil phase units. It is revealed that soil were non-saline with EC &lt;4 dSm<sup>-1</sup>. The OC, available P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and available K<sub>2</sub>O content of the study area were low to medium, and soil available N and S status were low in all the five soil phases. HEGiC2 soil phase was classified as class III land capability class with limitation of rooting and slope. Rest of the soil phases<em> viz.</em>, KALhC2g1S1R1, VKRhD2g2S2R3, CHRhC2g1S1R1 and BHGhE2g2S2R2 were classified as class IV land capability with limitation of slope, texture, erosion, rooting condition and organic carbon. Suitability for horticulture and field crops were derived based on soil phase, site characteristics and climatic regimes. Proposed crop plan for field crops and horticulture crops for all five soil phase units was prepared. Suitable soil and water conservation measures such as deep and wider size pit and drip irrigation for fruit crops and forest trees, cultivation on raised beds with mulches and drip irrigation, graded bunds and strengthening of field bunds, crescent bunds were found suitable for vegetables, flowers and sole crops based on the soil phase characteristics.</p> N. L. Rajesh Kirana Kumara V. Rajesh H. V. Rudramurthy U. Satish Kumar K. Basavaraj B. K. Desai R. Meenakshi Bai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 1 13 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v20i430139 Nutritional Composition of Little Millet Flour http://journalirjpac.com/index.php/IRJPAC/article/view/30140 <p>Modern man is facing a large number of dreadful diseases and disorders which were not known even known to ancient man. Dietary patterns were solely responsible for this ruinous situation. Hence replacement of empty calorie foods with nutritious grains- Millets helps to reduce the dual burden of malnutrition and also prevents and manages modern metabolic disorders. Hence the present study focuses on the evaluation of the nutritional composition of Little millet flour. Proximate and dietary fibre of flour was evaluated by the standard procedures of AOAC. The moisture content was 9.75 ± 0.07%, protein was 8.42 ± 0.27%, fatwas 2.10 ± 0.99%, ash was 1.75 ± 0.10%, energy was 351.65 ± 1.1 K. Cal, carbohydrate was 74.75 ± 0.36%, crude fibre was 3.20 ± 0.15% and dietary fiber was 12.51± 0.31%. Hence, it is suggestive that diversification of diet with little millet-based products would help to achieve food and nutritional security effectively and economically.</p> K. Srilekha T. Kamalaja K. Uma Maheswari R. Neela Rani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 1 4 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v20i430140 Solvent Extraction of Copper (II) Ions Using Unmodified and Aromatic Amine Modified Red Onion Skin Extract http://journalirjpac.com/index.php/IRJPAC/article/view/30141 <p>This study investigated the use of unmodified red onion skin extract (UROSE), aniline modified red onion skin extract (AmROSE) and 2-aminophenol modified red onion skin extract (APmROSE) for the extraction of copper (II) ions from aqueous media. The effect of pH, agitation time, ligand concentration and metal ion concentration on the percentage extraction were explored. The stoichiometric coefficients of the metal ions and the ligands (UROSE, AmROSE and APmROSE) in each extraction experiment were determined using slope analysis. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of copper (II) ions increased with increasing ligand concentration and agitation time and decreased with increasing initial concentration of copper (II) ions. The optimum pH for the extraction of copper (II) was found to be 6.77, 6.10 and 2.57 for UROSE, AmROSE and APmROSE respectively, while slope analysis showed that UROSE, AmROSE, and APmROSE ligands reacted with the metal ion in 1:1 molar ratio.</p> Uche John Chukwu Gervais Manizabayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 1 8 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v20i430141 Bio-ethanol (2nd Generation Ethanol): A Solution to Ever Polluting Gasoline to Climate in India http://journalirjpac.com/index.php/IRJPAC/article/view/30142 <p>Environmentally sustainable energy sources are called for due to contemporaneous development in industries along with the rapid pace of urbanization. Ethanol produced from biomass can be deliberated as a clean and safest liquid fuel and an alternative to fossil fuels as they have provided unique environmental, strategic economic benefits. For the past decade, it has been noticed that there is an increasing trend found in bio ethanol production which has created a stimulus to go for advancement in bio ethanol production technologies. Several feed stocks have been used for the bio ethanol production but the second generation bio ethanol has concentrated on the lignocellulosic biomass. Plenteous lignocellulosic biomass in the world can be tapped for ethanol production, but it will require significant advances in the ethanol production process from lignocellulosic because of some technical and economic hurdles found in commercial scale. This review will encompass the current status of bio ethanol production in terms of their economic and environmental viability along with some research gaps as well as policy implications for the same.</p> Shruti Mohapatra Raj Kishore Mishra Khitish K. Sarangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-14 2020-01-14 1 15 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v20i430142