International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ISSN: 2231-3443)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications in all aspects&nbsp; of pure and applied chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and genetics, inorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of solids, liquids, polymers and interfaces between different phases, neurochemistry, nuclear chemistry, modern transmutation, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, astrochemistry and cosmochemistry, quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry, sonochemistry, agrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, femtochemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry,&nbsp; mechanochemistry, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, radiochemistry, synthetic chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, thermochemistry, chemistry in industry and interactions between chemistry and environment.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry) (International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Tue, 12 May 2020 10:04:18 +0000 OJS 60 Oxygen Functionalized and Pristine Carbon Nanotubes Efficiency for Adsorption of Methyl Orange Dye <p>Pristine and oxygen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used as adsorbent for removal of Methyl Orange (MO) dye. The adsorption was carried out under different pH values. The analysis of results indicated that the adsorption characteristics of the MO dye by pristine carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) and oxygen functionalized carbon nanotubes (O2-CNTs) are highly influenced by the pH of the medium. The study report that the best pH medium of solution for the adsorption of MO on both CNTs was acid medium. The point of zero charge (pzc) of O2-CNTs and P-CNTs were determined as function of pH. The pzc of P-CNTs and O2-CNTs are found to be 4.7 and 3.9, respectively. The adsorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich. Fitting the equilibrium adsorption data by Langmuir and Freundlich models shows that experimental data well explained by the Langmuir equation.</p> Haydar A. Mohammad-Salim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Nutritional Content of Spondias Species from the Eastern Himalaya <p>The present study was carried out with the aim to screen out the nutritional characteristics of three underutilized fruit species of the genus <em>Spondias</em> which are seen grown wild in the forest of the north-eastern region of India, as the detail information on nutrient composition of these fruit species is scarce and people are unaware of the nutritional factor though inadvertently consuming a good amount of nutrients from these fruits. The present nutritional assessment revealed that the fruit of <em>Spondias pinnata</em> was found to possess highest TSS content (15.27 °Brix) however it was observed to exhibit higher acidity (4.59%) as well. The minimum titratable acidity was found in <em>Spondias axillaris</em> (2.45%). <em>Spondias pinnata</em> exhibited the highest ascorbic acid content (74.16 mg/100 g) followed by <em>Spondias axillaris</em> (61.60 mg/100 g) while the lowest (31.55 mg/100 g) was found in <em>Spondias cytherea. </em>Further, from the experiment, it was found that <em>Spondias pinnata</em> having the highest ascorbic acid was also found to exhibit highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (68.49%). <em>Spondias pinnata </em>was also found to possess maximum reducing sugar (7.32%), total carbohydrate (12.51%), total chlorophyll (0.03 mg/g), total carotenoid (1.30 mg/100 g) and starch content (195.72 mg/100 g). As far as total free amino acid was concern, <em>Spondias cytherea</em> recorded highest total free amino acid content (158.67 mg/100 g) showing a wide variation in comparison to <em>Spondias axillaris</em> (25.33 mg/100 g) and <em>Spondias pinnata </em>(22.67 mg/100 g). These wild fruit species under study proved to be a good source of nutrients with a potential to fulfill the nutritional requirements locally.</p> Thejangulie Angami, Lobsang Wangchu, Prankanu Debnath, Pranabjyoti Sarma, Barun Singh, Amit Kumar Singh, Siddhartha Singh, B. N. Hazarika, Mayanglambam Chandrakumar Singh, Ashok Chhetri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Phthalate Acid Esters in Bottled Drinking Water from Selected Brands in Delta State, Southern Nigeria <p>Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are widely used as plasticizers. However, they have the potential to migrate from plastic materials into the environment where they pose detrimental health impacts. Hence, they have gained wide attention. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the distribution and health risk assessment of PAEs in different bottled drinking water brands in Delta State, Southern Nigeria. Samples were collected from ten (10) bottled drinking water brands across eight (8) local government areas of the State. The 6-EPA controlled PAEs (DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DNOP) and one uncontrolled PAEs (BEP) were investigated. The individual PAE concentrations ranged from 0.005 – 2.738 µg/L while the total concentration of PAEs in the different brands ranged from 0.023 - 4.361 µg/L. The predominant PAEs across the ten brands were DMP and BEP however DBP had the highest total concentration (4.392 μg/L) making it the main contributor to PAE levels in bottled drinking water brands. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in the concentration of PAEs detected in the different bottled drinking water brands (p˃0.05). Health risk assessment indicated little non-carcinogenic risks from five controlled PAEs and little carcinogenic risk from DEHP. Continuous monitoring is however recommended to ensure than PAE levels in bottled drinking water remain within permissible limits. Our results therefore provides important information for the understanding of the distribution and potential health risks of PAEs in different bottled drinking water brands in Delta State.</p> Oghenekohwiroro Edjere, Albert Chukwuemeka Ibezute, Osayomwanbor Ebenezer Oghama ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical and Trace Metals Characterization of Edible Vegetable Oils <p>Edible vegetable oil samples purchased in Akure, Nigeria, were subjected to physicochemical properties and trace metals analysis. The physiochemical parameters such as acid value, iodine value and saponification value were carried out by standard methods and the levels of the trace metals (copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, nickel, lead and chromium) were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after wet digestion. The range of mean values obtained for the physicochemical parameters of the oils:&nbsp; acid value (3.59 - 9.65 mg KOH/g); iodine value (32.99 - 75.04 g I<sub>2</sub>/100g); and saponification value (187 – 207 mg/KOH/g), were within acceptable values for edible oils. The trace metals in the samples were in the range of values (mg/kg):0.10 - 0.60 (Cu); 0.07 - 2.49 (Zn); 0.13 - 0.55 (Fe); 0.01 - 0.48 (Mn); 0.01 - 0.09 (Cd); 0.01 - 0.08 (Ni); 0.07 - 0.26 (Pb); and 0.01 - 0.07(Cr). The concentration of trace metals such as Pb and Cd in the edible oils were beyond established permissible levels.</p> V. O. E. Akpambang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biochemical Analysis for Rice Germplasm Lines for Combat against Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas: Implication for Varietal Selection of Rice in India <p>Seven germplasm lines (IC No. 381538, 450535, 463380, 464140, 464186, 574807 and 578388) were categorised as best entries with resistance/ moderately resistant reaction at both vegetative (dead hearts)&nbsp; and reproductive (white ears) stages of the rice crop through field screening trials for two successive seasons <em>i.e</em>., <em>kharif</em>, 2016 and <em>kharif</em>, 2017. Complex factors like behavioural, metabolic processes of the insects and biochemical constituents of the host plants are involved in resistance to rice stem borers. Exploiting the mechanism of induced resistance in rice through abiotic elicitors is the need of the hour. Keeping in view the damage of yellow stem borer and its influence on rice yield the promising seven entries were selected for biochemical analysis. The analysis revealed that entries with low sugars and low free amino acids and high total phenols, proteins, proline and silica content may confer resistance to rice yellow stem borer and can be subjugated in the breeding programme to develop resistant varieties.</p> D. Sudha Rani, Ch. Chiranjeevi, T. Madhumathi, S. Krishnam Raju, Sk. Nafeez Umar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of Edible Rhododendron (Rhododendron arboreum Sm.) Flowers for Development of Spiced Beverage (Appetizer) and Its Shelf Life Evaluation during Storage <p>In India, various types of unexplored edible flowers are being utilized traditionally as food and medicine by the rural communities since ancient time only during their flowering time due to short post harvest life. These flowers are rich in phytochemical (e.g. polyphenolics, anthocyanins) which possess numerous health benefits. So, the present investigations were conducted to develop a spiced beverage/appetizer (spiced squash) from rhododendron flower petals and its quality evaluation during storage. Different combinations of petals extract and total soluble solids (TSS) were tried to standardize proper combination for spiced beverage. Appetizer recipe (T<sub>3</sub>) prepared with 35% extract, 40°B TSS and 1.20% acid was found to be best based on quality characteristics of the product. The best-selected appetizer recipe was packed in glass and PET bottles and stored for 6 months under ambient (15-25°C) and refrigerated temperature conditions (4-7°C). Overall effect of packaging and storage revealed that various quality characteristics like TSS, apparent viscosity, reducing and total sugars of appetizer increased slightly, whereas, other chemical characteristics like acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, total phenols and sensory characteristics scores of colour, body, taste, aroma, overall acceptability score decreased slightly during storage. The quality of beverage was retained better in glass bottles under refrigerated condition as compare to ambient storage condition.</p> N. S. Thakur, Aarti ., Hamid ., Abhimanyu Thakur, Sunakshi Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical Weed Management in Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Rice – Mustard Cropping System <p>An experiment was conducted at instructional farm Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya during <em>kharif</em> season, 2017 to find out a suitable chemical weed management practice in transplanted rice. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design having 12 treatments replicated thrice. The treatments were <strong>T<sub>1</sub></strong>: Weedy check, <strong>T<sub>2</sub></strong>: Weed free, <strong>T<sub>3</sub></strong>: Bispyribac sodium 10% SC @ 20 g <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 14 DAT, <strong>T<sub>4</sub></strong>: Bispyribac sodium 10% SC @ 30 g <em>a.i</em>&nbsp; ha<sup>-1</sup> at 14 DAT, <strong>T<sub>5</sub></strong>: Butachlor 1.5 kg <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 3 DAT, <strong>T<sub>6</sub></strong>: Pendimethalin 1.0 kg <em>a.i</em>. ha<sup>-1</sup> at 3 DAT, <strong>T<sub>7</sub></strong>: Pretilachlor 0.60 kg <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 3 DAT + 2,4-D sodium salt 0.50 kg <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 30 DAT, <strong>T<sub>8</sub></strong>: Butachlor 1.5 kg <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 3 DAT + 2,4-D sodium salt 0.50 kg <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 30 DAT, <strong>T<sub>9</sub></strong>: Metsulfuron methyl 20% WP @ 8 g <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 14 DAT, <strong>T<sub>10</sub></strong>: Pretilachlor 0.60 kg <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 3 DAT + Almix @ 20 g <em>a.i</em>. ha<sup>-1</sup> at 21 DAT, <strong>T<sub>11</sub></strong>: Butachlor 1.5 kg <em>a.i</em>. ha<sup>-1</sup> at 3 DAT + Bispyribac sodium 10% SC @ 20 g <em>a.i</em>&nbsp; ha<sup>-1 </sup>at 21 DAT and <strong>T<sub>12</sub></strong>: Almix @ 20 g <em>a.i</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 21 DAT. The rice variety used in the experiment was MTU 1075. It was observed that different herbicides treatments influenced weed control efficiency, weed index and yield components in transplanted rice. The highest number of filled grains (113.12 panicle<sup>-1</sup>), 1000 grain weight (22.90 g), grain yield (5.07 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (7.15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of rice was recorded with weed free (T<sub>2</sub>) treatment being at par with T<sub>11</sub>, T<sub>4</sub>, T<sub>3 </sub>and T<sub>10</sub>. In mustard, plots under weed free <em>i.e.</em> T<sub>2</sub> treatment in rice performed the best in terms of every yield attribute <em>viz</em>. number of siliqua (77.00 plant<sup>-1</sup>), number of seeds (20.41siliqua<sup>-1</sup>), 1000 seed weight (3.14 g) as well as seed yield (1067.46 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and stover yield (2157.40 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) being statistically at par with the plots under treatment T<sub>11 </sub>&amp; plots under treatment T<sub>4</sub>. It can be concluded that the treatment comprising combination of pre-emergence &amp; post-emergence herbicide like T<sub>11</sub> <em>i.e.</em> Butachlor 1.5 kg <em>a.i</em>. ha<sup>-1</sup> at 3 DAT + Bispyribac sodium 10% SC @ 20 g <em>a.i.</em> ha<sup>-1</sup> at 21 DAT or application of higher dose of efficient &amp; highly effective post-emergent herbicide molecule like T<sub>4 </sub><em>i.e</em>. Bispyribac sodium 10% SC @ 30 g <em>a.i</em>&nbsp; ha<sup>-1</sup> at 14 DAT can be opted for sufficient control of weeds in transplanted <em>kharif</em> paddy in <em>terai</em> zone of West Bengal to maximize the economic return.</p> Rupen Sharma, Jaladhar Gorain, Parthendu Poddar, Sagar Maitra, Manjil Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000