Impacts of Anthropological Activities on Soils of Some Parts of Rivers State, Nigeria
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry,
The study is a post project implementation Environmental Monitoring (EM) of impacts of anthropological activities on levels of soil physicochemical parameters. The study evaluates levels of physicochemical parameters in soils of 9 locations in Port Harcourt and its environs in Rivers State, Nigeria, grouped into 3 categories; urbanized, industrialized and agricultural. Composite soil samples were collected between April to October 2018. Concentration levels of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-benzene, and Xylene (BTEX), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), Percent Total Organic Carbon (% TOC), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Calcium (Ca), Nickel (Ni), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chromium (Cr), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), and Sulphur (S) in soil was measured using standard analytical procedures. The study evaluates the impact magnitude (IM) of the obtained test values against control values. In industrial area, BTEX recorded the highest Impact Magnitude (IM) of 100% while TOC and TPH recorded 100.00% and 88.89% respectfully, and were classified as severely impacted (S). In the agricultural areas, TOC and Ni recorded IM of 88.89% while BTEX had an IM of 77.78% which were highest and were classified as severe impact (S). In urbanized areas, Ni and (Phosphate) PO43- recorded the highest IM of 88.89% and were classified as severe (S). The study establishes that urbanization, industrialization and agricultural activities do affect the level of physicochemical parameters in the study areas. Activities in industrial areas negatively impact on levels of BTEX, % TOC and TPH in soils. Activities in agricultural areas negatively impacted on levels of BTEX, NO3-, NO2- and SO42- in soils, and activities in urban areas negatively impact on levels of Ni, PO43-, Zn, Mn, TPH, % TOC and Ca in soils of the study areas. These findings form a reliable baseline data for future researchers in EM in the study areas. The study recommends EM of soil physicochemical parameters in the study area in order to ensure a healthy soil for food production in order for realization of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); Good Health and well-being, and sustainable cities and communities.
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