Effect of Chemical Inducers of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) for the Management of Late Blight Disease of Potato

Main Article Content

S. H. Peerzada
H. S. Viswanath
K. A. Bhat

Abstract

Late blight of potato is one of the most devastating diseases with great economic importance. Among several disease management strategies, ISR (Induced systemic resistance) plays an important role in checking the disease spread. So, in the present study, nine different SAR chemical inducers viz. Phosphoric acid, Salicylic acid, Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA), Benzoic acid, Benzothiadiazole, Dichloro-iso nicotinic acid (INA) and Kinetin were evaluated at 0.05% (C1), 0.10% (C2) and 0.15% (C3) concentrations, whereas Calcium chloride and Ascorbic Acid at 3.5% (C1), 5.0% (C2), 6.5% (C3) and 1.5% (C1), 2.0% (C2), 2.5% (C3) respectively at three different concentrations each, along with positive and negative checks of standard fungicide metalaxyl 8+ macozeb 64 WP @0.25% and control(water) respectively by spraying them at 2-3 compound leaf stage of plants which were challenged by P. infestans inoculations five days later in pots to assess disease incidence and intensity which were recorded at weekly intervals of four stages (stage I-IV). It was found that the foliar spray with benzothiadiazole (BTH) @ 0.10 to 0.15% was best in delaying the appearance of first symptoms of the disease by 11 days followed by salicylic [email protected] 0.10 to 0.15% and ascorbic acid @ 2.5% which delayed the symptom appearance by 9 days, whereas the standard fungicidal spray of metalaxyl 8 + mancozeb 64 WP at the recommended concentration of 0.25% delayed the symptom appearance by only 8 days when compared to water sprayed check. It was also found that on an average, BTH sprays completely arrested the late blight development (0% intensity) followed by salicylic acid, INA and ascorbic acid sprays exhibiting 0.46-0.74% mean blight intensity compared to 2.00 and 6.28 percent intensity recorded, respectively, on metalaxyl 8 + mancozeb 64 WP and water-sprayed plants one week after first appearance of disease in control pots (stage I). These treatments with chemical inducers showed an increase in the activity of peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases in the infected potato leaves as a result of SAR activity at all stages (stage I-IV). Average maximum peroxidase activity of 19.01-20.66 mg and polyphenol oxidase activity of 2.70-2.89 mg were recorded in the potato leaves during stage-I, sprayed with either BTH, benzoic acid, phosphoric acid or salicylic acid as compared to only (16.78 mg and 2.28 mg), (4.66 mg and 1.36 mg) recorded in (metalaxyl 8 + mancozeb 64 WP) and water-sprayed check respectively. The highest concentrations of all the test chemicals, in general, showed increased biochemical activity thereby yielding lesser blight intensity compared to their lower concentrations.

Keywords:
The late blight of potato, Phytophthora infestans, SAR inducers, disease incidence and intensity.

Article Details

How to Cite
Peerzada, S. H., Viswanath, H. S., & Bhat, K. A. (2020). Effect of Chemical Inducers of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) for the Management of Late Blight Disease of Potato. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 21(15), 26-41. https://doi.org/10.9734/irjpac/2020/v21i1530250
Section
Original Research Article

References

Peerzada SH, Bhat KA, Viswanath HS. Studies on management of late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary) of potato using organic soil amendments. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2020;9(02):2093-2099. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.902.237

Ruiz-García Y, Gómez-Plaza E. Elicitors: A tool for improving fruit phenolic content. Agriculture. 2013;3(1):33-52.

Shahbazi H, Aminian H, Sahebani N, Halterman DA. Biochemical evaluation of resistance responses of potato to different isolates of Alternaria solani. Phytopathology. 2010;100(5):454-459.

Mahadevan A, Sridhar R. Methods in physiological plant pathology. 2nd Edition. Sivakami Publication, Madras. 1982;82.

Sadasivam S, Manickam A. Biochemical methods for agricultural sciences, New Age International (P) Ltd., New Delhi. 1996;1-97.

Mohan C, Thind TS. Resistance and relative performance of some new fungicides for active management of potato late blight in Punjab. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 1999;29(1):23-37.

Raupach GS, Kloepper JW. Biocontrol of cucumber diseases in the field by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with and without methyl bromide fumigation. Plant Dis. 2000;84:1073-1075.

Benhamou N, Belanger RR. Induction of systemic resistance to pythium damping off in cucumber plants by benzothiadiazole: Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the host response. Plant J. 1998;14:13-21.

Kushwaha KPS, Narain U. Biochemical changes to pigeon pea leaves infected with Alternaria tenuissinia. Annals of Plant Protection Science. 2005;13:415-417.

Parashar A, Lodha P. Phenolics estimation in Foeniculum vulgare infected with Ramularia blight. Annals of Plant Protection Science. 2007;15:396-398.

Kumar S, Thind TS, Bala A, Gupta AK. Induced resistance in plants against Phytophthora infestans using chemical and bio-agents. Disease Research. 2010;25(1):12-18.

Astha, Sekhon PS. Efficacy of SAR elicitors and fungicides against late blight of potato and downy mildew of muskmelon. Agric Res J. 2017;54(4):529-533.

Kazemi M. Effect of foliar application with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate on growth, flowering, yield and fruit quality of tomato. Bull Env Pharm Life Sci. 2014;32:154-58.

Atia MM, Buchenauer H, Aly AZ, Abou-Zaid MI. Antifungal activity of chitosan against Phytophthora infestans and activation of defence mechanisms in tomato to late blight. Bio Agri Hort. 2005;232:175-97.

Nadia G, El-Gamal G, Abd-El-Kareem F, Fotouh Y, El-Mougy N. Induction of systemic resistance in potato plants against late and early blight diseases using chemical inducers under greenhouse and field conditions. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 2007;3:73-81.

Farouk S, Ghoneem KM, Ambeer AA. Induction and expression of systemic resistance to downy mildew disease in cucumber by elicitors. Egypt J Phytopath. 2008;36:95-111.

Buonaurio R, Scarponi L, Ferrara M, Sidoti P, Bertona A. Induction of systemic acquired resistance in pepper plants by acibenzilar-S-methyl against bacterial spot disease. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 2002;108:41-49.

Ghandi H. Anfoka. Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester induces systemic resistance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill cv. Vollendung) to Cucumber mosaic virus. Crop Protection. 2000;19:401-405.

Mur L, Maddison AL, Darby RM, Draper J. Systemically translocated salicylic acid is vital in establishing systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. First International Congress on Systemic Induced Resistance. Corfu. Abstract 58; 2000.

Cole DL. The efficacy of acibenzolar-S-methyl, an inducer of systemic acquired resistance, against bacterial and fungal diseases of tobacco. Crop Prot. 1999;18:267-273.

Lawton K, Friedrich F, Hunt M, Weymann K, Delaney T, Kessmann H, Staub T, Ryals J. Benzothiadiazole induces disease resistance in Arabidopsis by activation of the systemic acquired resistance signal transduction pathway. Plant Journal. 1996;10:71-82.

Cohen Y. Local and systemic protection against Phytophthora infestans induced in potato and tomato plants by DL-3-amino-n-butyric acid. Phytopathology. 1994;84:55-59.