Main Article Content
Plant–based nanocrystals have gained wide research interest due to its application in nano–reinforcement. Hence, the study investigated the stems of umbrella plant as potentials source of cellulose fibers to synthesize cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The synthesis of CNCs were conducted using acid hydrolysis with 10 mL 64% w/w sulfuric acid for each gram of purified cellulose at 45°C for 30 min. The surface morphology, structural, physical and thermal properties of CNCs were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X–ray diffractometer (XRD), and simultaneous thermal analyzer, respectively. The result showed that the CNCs were mixture of rod–like shape and spherical morphology. The CNC rods were less than 20 nm width and 200–300 nm length when viewed under FESEM. However, the CNC rods were shorter when viewed under TEM and had a width less than 5 nm and length between 20–50 nm. The spherical CNCs that were seen only under TEM were less than 20 nm in diameter. The FTIR spectra showed that the CNCs were composed of crystalline cellulose I wherein the molecular structure of cellulose was preserved after the hydrolysis. The XRD patterns showed that the CNCs were highly crystalline with crystallinity index value of 94.48%. Lastly, the CNCs exhibited a three–stage thermal decomposition behavior.
Fortunati E, Puglia D, Monti M, Peponi L, Santulli C, Kenny JM, Torre L. Extraction of cellulose nanocrystals from Phormium tenax Fibres. J. Polym. Environ. 2013;21: 319–328.
Siqueira G, Tapin–Lingua S, Bras J, da Silva Perez D, Dufresne A. Mechanical properties of natural rubber nanocomposites reinforced with cellulosic nanoparticles obtained from combined mechanical shearing, and enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of sisal fibers. Cellulose. 2010;18:57–65.
Peng BL, Dhar N, Liu HL, Tam KC. Chemistry and applications of nanocrystalline cellulose and its derivatives: A nanotechnology perspective. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2011;89:1191–1206.
Shi J, Shi SQ, Barnes HM. A chemical process for preparing cellulosic fibers hierarchically from kenaf bast fibers. Biores. 2011;6:879–90.
Lima MMS, Borsali R. Rodlike cellulose microcrystals: structure, properties, and applications. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2004;25:771–787.
Silvério HA, Neto WPF, Dantas NO. Extraction and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from corncob for application as reinforcing agent in nanocomposites. Ind Crops Prod. 2013;44:427–36.
Islam MT, Alam MM, Zoccola M. Review on modification of nanocellulose for application in composites. Int J Innovative Research in Sci, Engand Technol. 2013;2: 5444–5451.
Zhang W, Yang XL, Li CY. Mechanochemical activation of cellulose and its thermoplastic polyvinyl alcohol ecocomposites with enhanced physicochemical properties. Carbohyd Polym. 2011;83:257–263.
Eichhorn SJ, Dufresne A, Aranguren M, Marcovich NE, Capadona JR, Rowan SJ, et al. Review: Current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites. J. Mater. Sci. 2010;45:1-33.
Khalil HPSA, Davoudpour Y, Islama MN. Production and modification of nanofibrillated cellulose using various mechanical processes: A review. Carbohyd Polym. 2014;99:649–65.
Kalia S, Dufresne A, Cherian BM. Cellulose-based bio- and nanocomposites: A review. Int J Polym Sci. 2011;1-35.
Lavoine N, Desloges I, Dufresne A, Bras J. Microfibrillated cellulose–Its barrier properties and applications in cellulosic materials: A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2012;90:735–764.
Wang B, Sain M, Oksman K. Study of structural morphology of hemp fiber from the micro to the nanoscale. Applied Composite Materials. 2007;14;89–103.
Reddy MM, Vivekanandhan S, Misra M. Biobased plastics and bionanocomposites: Current status and future opportunities. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2013;38:1653–1689.
Liu HY, Liu D, Yao F. Fabrication and properties of transparent polymethyl methacrylate/cellulose nanocrystals composites. Biores Technol. 2010;101: 5685–92.
Frone AN, Panaitescu DM, Donescu D. Preparation and characterization of PVA composites with cellulose nanofibers obtained by ultrasonication. Biores. 2011; 6:487–512.
Alemdar A, Sain M. Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agriculturalresidues–wheat straw and soy hulls. Bioresour. Technol. 2008;99:1664–1671.
Tonoli GHD, Teixeira EM, Corrêa AC. Cellulose micro/nanofibres from Eucalyptus kraft pulp: Preparation and properties. Carbohyd. Polym. 2012;89:80–88.
Dalmas F, Chazeau L, Gauthier C. Large deformation mechanical behavior of flexible nanofiber filled polymer nanocomposites. Polym. 2006;47:2802–2812.
Floros M, Hojabri L, Abraham E. Enhancement of thermal stability, strength and extensibility of lipid-based polyurethanes with cellulose-based nanofibers. Polym Degrad and Stabil. 2012;97:1970-1978.
Ahmed AH. Chemical and Biological Studies of Cyperus alternifolius Flowers essential oil. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2012;24:4768–4770.
Liao X, Luo S, Wu Y, Wang Z. Comparison of nutrient removal ability between Cyprus alternifolius and Vetiveria zizanioides in constructed wetlands. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. 2005;16:156–160.
Anonymous. PlantUse; 2016. Accessed 21 March 2018. Available:https://uses.plantnetproject.org/en/Cyperus_alternifolius_(PROSEA).
Natarajan T, Kumaravel A, Palanivelu R. Extraction and characterization of natural cellulosic fiber from Passiflora foetida stem. International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization. 2016;21: 478–485.
Obi Reddy K, Ashok K, Raja Narender Reddy K, Feng YE, Zhang J, Varada Rajalu A. Extraction and characterization of novel lignocellulosic fibers from Thespesia lampas plant. Int. J. Polym. Anal Charact. 2016;19:48–61.
Hamad WY. Hydrolytic extraction of cellulose nanocrystals. Cellulose nanocrystals: Properties, production, and applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom; 2017.
Lu P, Hsieh YL. Preparation and properties of cellulose nanocrystals: Rods, spheres, and network. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2010;82:329–336.
Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS, Vyvyan JR. Introduction to spectroscopy. 5th ed. Cengage Learning: 200 First Stamford Place, 4th Floor, Stamford, CT 06902, USA; 2015.
Sain M, Panthapulakkal S. Bioprocess preparation of wheat straw fibres and their characterization. Ind Crops Prod. 2006;2: 1–8.
Neto WPF, Silverio HA, Dantas NO, Pasquini D. Extraction and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from agro-industrial residue–Soy hulls. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013;42:480–488.
Li R, Fei J, Cai Y, Li Y, Feng J, Yao J. Cellulose whiskers extracted from mulberry: A novel biomass production. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2009;76:94–99.
Troedec M, Sedan D, Peyratout C, Bonnet J, Smith A, Guinebretiere R, Gloaguen V, Krausz P. Influence of various chemical treatment on the composition and structure of hemp fibres. Compos Part A. 2008;39: 514–522.
Kumar A, Lee Y, Kim D, Rao KM, Kim J, Park S, Haider A, Lee DH, Han SS. Effect of crosslinking functionality on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro cytocompatibility of cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol)/ sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2016;1–11.
Kumar A, Negi YS, Choudhary V, Bhardwaj NK. Characterization of Cellulose nanocrystals produced by acid–hydrolysis from sugarcane bagasse as agro–waste. Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2014;2:1–8.
Wang LF, Shankar S, Rhim JW. Properties of alginate–based films reinforced with cellulose fibers and cellulose whiskers isolated from mulberry pulp. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017;63:201–208.
Kargarzadeh H, Ahmad I, Abdullah I, Dufresne A, Zainudin SY, Sheltami RM. Effects of hydrolysis conditions on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from kenaf bast fibers. Cellulose. 2012;19: 855–866.
de Souze Lima MM, Borsali R. Rodlike cellulose microcrystals: Structure, properties and applications. Macromole-cular Rapid Communications. 2004;25: 771–787.
Mandal A, Chakrabarty D. Isolation of nanocellulose from waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and its characterization. Carbohydr. Polym. 2011;86:1291–1299.
Wang N, Ding EY, Chang RS. Thermal degradation behaviors of spherical cellulose nanocrystals with sulfate groups. Polymer. 2007;48:3486¬–3493.
Li W, Wang R, Liu S. Nanocrystalline cellulose prepared from softwood kraft pulp via ultrasonic-assisted acid hydrolysis. Bioresources. 2011;6:4271–4281.
George J, Sajeevkumar VA, Kumar R, Ramana KV, Sabapathy SN, Bawa AS. Enhancement of thermal stability associated with the chemical treatment of bacterial (Gluconacetobacter xylinus) cellulose. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2008;8: 1845–1851.
Maren R, William TW. Effect of sulfate groups from sulfuric acid hydrolysis on the thermal degradation behavior of bacterial cellulose. Biomacromolecules. 2004;5: 1671–1677.
Julien S, Chornet E, Overend RP. Influence of acid pre-treatment (H2SO4, HCl, HNO3) on reaction selectivity in the vacuum pyrolysis of cellulose. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 1993;27: 25–43.
Kim DY, Nishiyama Y, Wada M, Kuga S. High-yield carbonization of cellulose by sulphuric acid impregnation. Cellulose. 2001;8:29–33.