Proximate Composition and Glycemic Index Profiling of Differently Composed Nutri-Cereal Biscuits
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry,
An increasing body of evidence suggests that a low-glycemic-index (GI) diet has a therapeutic as well as a preventive potential in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. Interest in development of low GI foods is growing worldwide; hence there is a need for more diversified food with low GI. At the same time the demand for nutri-cereals is also growing due to its nutrient density, hence in the present study, six types of nutri-cereal (millets) based biscuits made from sorghum, pearl millet and foxtail millet were estimated for their proximate composition and glycemic index (GI). There is significant difference in the nutritional composition of all the biscuits, except ash content of SPB and PB, moisture content of SSB and FB, available carbohydrates of SWB and SCB. The protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash and dietary fibre content ranged from 5.88 g to 9.01 g, 19.98 g to 23.78 g, 59.67 to 64.20 g, 0.61 g to 1.04 g and 8.80 g to 12.20 g /100 g respectively. All the biscuits were found to have low GI (less than 55) and order of GI and GL is PB>SWB>SSB>FB>SPB>SCB.
- glycemic index
How to Cite
Awika JM, Rooney LW. Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. Phytochemistry. 2004;65(9):1199-1221.
Klopfenstein CF, Hoseney RC, St Paul, Dendy DAV. Nutritional properties of sorghum and millets. In Sorghum and Millets Chemistry and Technology. American Association of Cereal Chemistry. 1995;125.
Bala Ravi S. Neglected millets that save the poor from starvation. LEISA India. 2004;6(1):34-36.
Sarita Ekta Singh. Potential of millets: Nutrients composition and health benefits. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research. 2016;5(2):46-50.
Sandhya AE, Waghray K. Development of sorghum biscuits incorporated with spices. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;3(2):120-128.
Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye, Fatih Yildiz. Assessment of quality and sensory properties of sorghum–wheat flour cookies. Cogent Food and Agriculture. 2016;2:1.
Adebowale AA, Adegoke MT, Sanni SA, Adegunwa MO, Fetuga GO. Functional properties and biscuit making potentials of sorghum-wheat flour composite. American Journal of Food Technology. 2012;7(6): 372-379.
Mridula D, Gupta RK, Manikantan MR. Effect of incorporation of sorghum flour to wheat flour on quality of biscuits fortified with defatted soy flour. American Journal of Food Technology. 2007;2:428-434.
Wulandari E, Sukarminah E, Lanti I, Sufmawati F. Organoleptic characteristics of cookies from sorghum composites flour. ICSAFS Conference Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security: A Comprehensive Approach; 2017.
De Petre N, Rozycki V, De la Torre M, Erben M, Bernardi C, Osella C. Optimization of gluten free cookies from red and white sorghum flours. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016;4(10): 671-676.
Anju T, Sarita S. Suitability of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) for development of low glycemic index biscuits. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition. 2010;16(3):361-8.
Washington DC. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. Arlington V A 2209; 1990.
Washington DC. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. Arlington V A 2209, USA; 2005.
Washington DC. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. Arlington V A 2209; 1997.
Washington DC. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. Arlington V A 2209; 1995.
Gopalan C, Ramsastri BV, Balsubramanian. Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad. 2004;47-69.
FAO/WHO Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food Nutrition Paper. 1998;66:1–140.
Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL. Dietary fiber, glycemic load and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:545–550.
George Amponsah Annor, Catrin Tyl, Massimo Marcone, Sanaa Ragaee, Alessandra Marti. Why do millets have slower starch and protein digestibility than other cereals. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2017;66:73-83.
Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, Liu S, Jacobs DR Jr, Spiegelman D, et al. Changes in whole-grain, bran and cereal fiber consumption inrelation to 8-y weight gain among men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004;80(5):1237–1245.
Du H, vander AD, Boshuizen HC, Forouhi NG, Wareham NJ, Halkjaer, et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;91(2): 329–336.
Thorne MJ, Thompson LU, Jenkins DJA. Factors affecting starch digestibility and the glycemic response with special reference to legumes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1983;38:481-488.
Bjorck I, Granfeldt Y, Liljeberg H, Tovar J, Asp NG. Food properties affecting the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1994;59:699S-705S.
Vinoy S, Normand S, Meynier A, Sothier M, Louche-Pelissier C, Peyrat J, et al. Cereal processing influences postprandial glucose metabolism as well as the GI effect. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2013;32(2):79–91.
Jenkins DJA, Ghafari A, Wolever TMS. Relationship between the rate of digestion of foods and post-prandial glycaemia. Diabetologia. 1982;22:450–455.
Welch IM, Bruce C, Hill SE, Read NW. Duodenal and ileal lipid suppresses postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in man: Possible implications for the dietary management of diabetes mellitus. Clinical Science. 1987;72:209–216.
Peters AL, Davidson MB. Protein and fat effects on glucose response and insulin requirements in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1993;58:555–560.
Franca Marangoni, Andrea Poli. The glycemic index of bread and biscuits is markedly reduced by the addition of a proprietary fiber mixture to the ingredients. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2008;18:602-605.
Trinidad P. Trinidad, Divinagracia H. Valdez, Anacleta S. Loyola, Aida C. Mallillin, Faridah C. Askali, Joan C. Castillo, et al. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects. British Journal of Nutrition. 2003;90:551–556.
Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, Gibbs AL, Lang V, Slama G, et al. Glycemic index methodology. Nutrition Research Review. 2005;8(1):145-71.
Reis CEG, Bordalo LA, Rocha ALC, Freitas DMO, Da Silva MVL, et al. Ground roasted peanuts leads to a lower post-prandial glycemic response than raw peanuts. Nutrición Hospitalaria [en linea]. 2011;26(4):745-751.
Hoebler C, Karinthi A, Chiron H, Champ M, Barry JL. Bioavailability of starch in bread rich in amylose: Metabolic responses in healthy subjects and starch structure. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;53:360–366.
Abstract View: 183 times
PDF Download: 188 times