Quality Characterization of Surface Water Sources Using Water Quality Index in Urban Areas of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh

Main Article Content

Jyotsana Pandit
S. K. Bhardwaj

Abstract

The studies of surface water quality of urban areas has become a major environmental challenge. In effect these aquatic ecosystems are increasingly under strong anthropogenic pressure. This fact causes the deteriorations of their quality and biodiversity. That seems the cases of the surface water of Solan District. Known the importance of these ecosystems in socio-economic activities of this district, it is important to lead studies for water qualities assessment. So, the surface water quality of urban areas of Solan District was assessed using the water quality index (WQI).To realize this objective, water samples were collected from five urban areas (Arki, Baddi, Nalagarh, Parwanoo, Solan) during the summer and winter seasons and were analyzed for major physicochemical parameters, viz. pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, BOD, COD, DO,As, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, to determine its suitability for drinking and domestic purposes. In surface water pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, BOD, COD, DO were found in the range of 6.74-7.55, 0.294-0.506 dS m-1,3.71-7.79 NTU, 105.51-253.26 mg l-1, 1.51-3.14 mg l-1,101.79-166.88 mg l-1, 4.16-6.58 mg l-1 consequently. Trace elements Pb, Cr, Zn, As, Cd, were found in the range of 0.04-0.28 mg l-1, 0.034-0.063 mg l-1, 0.22-0.46 mg l-1, 0.004-0.020 mg l-1 and 0.002-0.008 mg l-1 respectively. All water quality parameters except Pb, Cr, Cd were within the permissible limits. Out of all urban areas WQI of Arki (33) and Solan (46) was categorized as good. Whereas WQI of Parwanoo, Baddi and Nalagarh was 69, 62, 57 respectively and was categorized as poor, indicating negative impacts o urbanization and industrialization. The study indicated that urbanization in the district has started impacting surface water sources, therefore bregular quality monitoring is required and for sustainable urbanization the implementation of stringent rules and guidelines are needed to enhance health and preserve them for future generations.

Keywords:
Surface water quality, urbanization, industrialization, seasonal variation, water quality index.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pandit, J., & Bhardwaj, S. K. (2020). Quality Characterization of Surface Water Sources Using Water Quality Index in Urban Areas of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 21(24), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/irjpac/2020/v21i2430329
Section
Original Research Article

References

Razmkhah H, Abrishamchi A, Torkian A. Evaluation of spatial and temporal variation in water quality by pattern recognition techniques: A case study on Jajrood River (Tehran, Iran). Journal of Environmental Management. 2010;91(1): 852–860.

Biglin A, Konanc MU. Evaluation of surface water quality and heavy metal pollution of Coruh river basin (Turkey) by multivariate statistical methods. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2016; 75(1):1029-1037.

Jung KY, Lee KL, Lee IJ, Kim S, Han KY Ahn JM. Evaluation of water quality for the Nakdong River watershed using multivariate analysis. Environmental Technology and Innovation. 2016;5(1): 67–82.

Kumar L, Kumar S, Saxena PR, Satyanarayana E, Edukondal A. Assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes in Maheshwaram area, Ranga Reddy District, Telangana State, India. Journal of Environmental Research and Development. 2015;9(3):523-529.

Vega M, Pardo R, Barrado E, Deban L. Assessment of seasonal and polluting effects on the qualityof river water by exploratory data analysis. Water Research 1998;32(1):3581–3592.

Bhutiani R, Khanna DR, Kulkarni DB, Ruhela M. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices. Applied Water Science. 2016;6(2):107–113.

Hossain MA, Mir SI, Nasly MA, Wahid ZA and Aziz EA. Assessment of spatial variation of surface water quality at gebeng industrial Estate, Pahang, Malaysia. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Geo-Environmental. 2012;3(1):51-56.

Vipan KV, Raj KS, Mohinder PSK. Ugly face of urbanization and industrialization: A study of water pollution in Buddha Nala of Ludhiana city, India. Journal of Environmental Science. 2013;1(1):6–11.

Barakat A, Meddah R, Afdali M, Touhami F. Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 2018;104(1):39–46.

Etim E, Odoh R, Itodo A, Umoh S, Lawal U. Water quality index for the assessment of water quality from different sources in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Frontier Science. 2013;3(1):89–95.

Bordalo AA, Nilsumranchit W, Chalermwat K. Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong River (Eastern Thailand). Water Research 2001;35(1):3635–3642.

Ganiyu S, Olurin O, Ojo A, Badmus B, Jegede O. Quality assessment of spring and well waters: An approach using water quality index and multivariate statistical analysis. African Review of Physics. 2017; 12(1):47–64.

Alobaidy AHMJ, Abid HS, Maulood BK. Application of water quality index for assessment of Dokan lake ecosystem, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2010;2(1):792–798.

Naik S, Purohit KM. Studies on water quality of river Brahmani in Sundargarh district, Orissa. Indian Journal of Environment and Ecoplanning. 2001;5(2): 397–402.

Muniz DHF, Moraes AS, Freire IS, Cruz CJD, Lima EFW. Oliveira EC. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia. 2011;3:307–317.

Bollinger JE, Steinberg LJ, Harrison MJ. Comparative analysis of nutrient data in the lower Mississippi River. Water Research 1999;33(1):2627–2632.

APHA. Standard methods for the examination of waste water. Washington DC. 2012;161

Anonymous. Indian standard 10500 of drinking water specification. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India. 2012; 32

WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 2011.

Balan IN, Shivakumar M, Kumar PDM. An assessment of ground water quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Chronicles of Young Scientists. 2012;3(2):146-150.

Cochran GC, Cox GM. Experimental designs. Asia Publishing House, Bombay. 1964;611

Karthikeyani TP, Rameh M. Physico-chemical, biological and bacteriological characterization of Amaravathy River, Tamil Nadu. In: Ecology and Polluted Waters. 1st ed. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. 2002;661-667

Dwivedi SL and Pathak V. Study of trace element in Mandakini River water at Chitrakoot. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection. 2009;29(2): 131-136.

Joshi DM, Kumar A, Agrawal N. Studies on physicochemical parameters to assess the water quality of river Ganga for drinking purpose in Haridwar district. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry. 2010;2(1):195-203.

Rajan DS, Samuel SM. Seasonal patterns and behaviour of water quality parameters of Achenkovil River. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2016; 4(6):489-494.

Agrawal S, Chourasia V, Soni P. Study of seasonal variations in physicochemical parameters of Abheda pond, Kota District, Rajasthan. International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering. 2018;7(2):478-482.

Kumar P, Kaushal RK, Nigam AK. Assessment and management of Ganga river water quality using multivariate statistical techniques in India. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution. 2015; 12(4): 61–69.

Singh AK, Bhardwaj SK. Assessment of spatial and temporal variation of water quality in mid hills of north west himalayas - A water quality index approach. Current World Environment. 2019;14(1):37-48.

Sharma R, Capoor A. Seasonal variations in physical, chemical and biological parameters of lake water of patna bird sanctuary in relation to fish productivity. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2010; 8(1):129-132.

Araoye PA. The seasonal variation of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO2) concentration in Asa lake Ilorin, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2009;4(5): 271-274.

Kerketta P, Baxla SL, Gora RH, Kumari S Roushan RK. Analysis of physico-chemical properties and heavy metals in drinking water from different sources in and around Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. Veterinary World. 2013;6(7):370-375.

Bouslah S, Djemili L, Houichi L. Water quality index assessment of Koudiat Medouar Reservoir, northeast Algeria using weighted arithmetic index method. Journal of Water and Land Development. 2017;35(11):221-228.

Trivedi P, Bajpai A, Thareja S. Comparative study of seasonal variation in physicochemical characteristics in drinking water quality of Kanpur, India with reference to 200 MLD filtration plant and ground water. Nature and Science. 2010; 8(4):11-17

Liyanage CP, Yamada K. Impact of population growth on the water quality of natural water bodies. Sustainability 2017; 9(8):1405-1410.

Das J, Acharya C. Hydrology and assessment of lotic water quality in Cuttack city, India. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2003;150(1):163-175.

Srivastava RK, Sinha AK, Pande DP, Singh KP, Chandra . Water quality of the River Ganga at Phaphamau (Allahabad)—Effect of mass bathing during Mahakumbh. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality. 1996;11(1):1-5.

Shiddamallayya N. Impact of domestic sewage on fresh water BOD. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2008;29(3):303-308.

Gayatri MU, Deshbhratar SM, Singh AJ. Assessment of the few specific parameters of Satpala Lake at Virar, Thane, Maharashtra. International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering. 2018;7(3):518-525.

Radwan M, Willems P, ElSadek A, Berlamont J. Modelling of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in river water using a detailed and a simplified model. International Journal of River Basin Management. 2003;1(2):97-104.

Abdelmongy AS, El-Moselhy KM. Seasonal variations of the physical and chemical properties of seawater at the northern red sea, Egypt. Open Journal of 0cean and Coastal Sciences. 2015;2(1): 1-7.

Varol M, Sen B. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of Behrimaz Stream, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2009;159:543–553.

Levitt JP, Degnan JR, Flanagan SM, Jurgens BC. Arsenic variability and groundwater age in three water supply wells in southeast New Hampshire. Geoscience Frontiers. 2019;10(1):1669-683.

Repula CMM, Percio S, Campos BK, Ganzarolli EM, Lopes MC. Accumulation of chromium and lead in bryophytes and pteridophytes in a stream affected by tannery wastewater. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2011;88(1):84-88.

Basak B, Alagha O. Trace metals solubility in rainwater: Evaluation of rainwater quality at a watershed area, Istanbul. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2010;167(1):493-503.

Hasan M, Begum L, Hosain S, Poddar P, Chowdhury A, Ali F. Study on heavy metals (zinc and lead) in drinking water of tannery area, adjacent areas and outside village areas. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology. 2017;7:433- 437.

Biswas B, Hamada T. Relation between Hazaribagh Tannery Industry Development and Buriganga River Pollution in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environment. 2012;2(2):117–127.

Dev MK, Zodge SD, Puranik UY, Chandraprabha M. Analysis of heavy metal concentration in ground water around industrial area midc lote, Maharashtra, India. Plant Archives. 2017; 17(1):39-42.

Rajmohan N, Elango L. Distribution of iron, manganese, zinc and atrazine in Groundwater in parts of palar and cheyyar river Basins, South India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2005;107(1): 115–131.

Michael AJ, Johnson HM. Long-term mortality profile of heavily-exposed lead smelter workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1982;24(5):375‐378.

Ndeda LA, Manohar S. Determination of Heavy Metals in Nairobi Dam Water, (Kenya). Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2014;8(5):68-73.

Singh H, Raghuvanshi D, Pandey R, Yadav A, Tripathi B, Kumar P, Shukla DN. Assessment of seven heavy metals in water of the river Ghaghara, a major tributary of the Ganga in Northern India. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2016;7(5):34-45.

Yu C, Linga Q, Yan S, Li J, Chend Z, Peng Z. Cadmium contamination in various environmental materials in an industrial area, Hangzhou, China. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability. 2010;22(1):35-42.

Reza R, Singh G. Assessment of ground water quality status by using water quality index method in Orissa, India. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2010;9(12): 1392-1397.

Yisa J, Jimoh T. Analytical studies on water quality index of river Landzu. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 2010;7(4):453–458.

Shah KA, Joshi GS. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati Gujarat. Applied Water Science. 2017;7(1):1349–1358.