Quality Characterization of Surface Water Sources Using Water Quality Index in Urban Areas of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh

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Jyotsana Pandit
S. K. Bhardwaj


The studies of surface water quality of urban areas has become a major environmental challenge. In effect these aquatic ecosystems are increasingly under strong anthropogenic pressure. This fact causes the deteriorations of their quality and biodiversity. That seems the cases of the surface water of Solan District. Known the importance of these ecosystems in socio-economic activities of this district, it is important to lead studies for water qualities assessment. So, the surface water quality of urban areas of Solan District was assessed using the water quality index (WQI).To realize this objective, water samples were collected from five urban areas (Arki, Baddi, Nalagarh, Parwanoo, Solan) during the summer and winter seasons and were analyzed for major physicochemical parameters, viz. pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, BOD, COD, DO,As, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, to determine its suitability for drinking and domestic purposes. In surface water pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, BOD, COD, DO were found in the range of 6.74-7.55, 0.294-0.506 dS m-1,3.71-7.79 NTU, 105.51-253.26 mg l-1, 1.51-3.14 mg l-1,101.79-166.88 mg l-1, 4.16-6.58 mg l-1 consequently. Trace elements Pb, Cr, Zn, As, Cd, were found in the range of 0.04-0.28 mg l-1, 0.034-0.063 mg l-1, 0.22-0.46 mg l-1, 0.004-0.020 mg l-1 and 0.002-0.008 mg l-1 respectively. All water quality parameters except Pb, Cr, Cd were within the permissible limits. Out of all urban areas WQI of Arki (33) and Solan (46) was categorized as good. Whereas WQI of Parwanoo, Baddi and Nalagarh was 69, 62, 57 respectively and was categorized as poor, indicating negative impacts o urbanization and industrialization. The study indicated that urbanization in the district has started impacting surface water sources, therefore bregular quality monitoring is required and for sustainable urbanization the implementation of stringent rules and guidelines are needed to enhance health and preserve them for future generations.

Surface water quality, urbanization, industrialization, seasonal variation, water quality index.

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Pandit, J., & Bhardwaj, S. K. (2020). Quality Characterization of Surface Water Sources Using Water Quality Index in Urban Areas of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 21(24), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/irjpac/2020/v21i2430329
Original Research Article


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