International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2021-01-18T06:27:09+00:00 International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ISSN: 2231-3443)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications in all aspects&nbsp; of pure and applied chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and genetics, inorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of solids, liquids, polymers and interfaces between different phases, neurochemistry, nuclear chemistry, modern transmutation, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, astrochemistry and cosmochemistry, quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry, sonochemistry, agrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, femtochemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry,&nbsp; mechanochemistry, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, radiochemistry, synthetic chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, thermochemistry, chemistry in industry and interactions between chemistry and environment.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> A Review on Adsorption and Desorption of Different Pesticides in Various Soil 2021-01-17T16:34:51+00:00 Dhara D. Lunagariya K. G. Patel Susheel Singh Vipulkumar B. Parekh T. R. Ahlawat <p>Pesticides are important to the success of agriculture as well as an inevitable factor to maintain good public health. Over the years, the consumption of pesticides has increased manifold, particularly during the past two decades. However, this increase has caused great concern over the presence of residues or leftover pesticides in the environment. The understanding of adsorption and desorption behavior of different pesticides is an important phenomenon to describe the fate of pesticide in soil and other environmental compartment like water and sediment. The soil is considered as ultimate sink of pesticide as these were reached to soil directly or indirectly from the point/non-point sources. Adsorption–desorption processes are necessary in understanding pesticides retention behavior and its potential mobility within the soil. The behavior of pesticides in the soil depends on factors such as the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, the active surface of mineral, organic components and the amount of the pesticide applied. Henceforth, adsorption and desorption of soil applied pesticides needed to deal with greater sincerity. This review primarily ascertains dominant properties of pesticides including surface area, pH, surface functional groups, carbon content and aromatic structure and evaluate the adsorption and desorption of pesticide in agricultural soils. In addition, a vision for future research prospects has been anticipated by considering the pesticide bioavailability as residues in soil, influence of soil organic matter, clay content, pH and soil temperature on pesticide removal, pesticide properties and its behavior in soils.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality Characterization of Surface Water Sources Using Water Quality Index in Urban Areas of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh 2021-01-17T16:34:53+00:00 Jyotsana Pandit S. K. Bhardwaj <p>The studies of surface water quality of urban areas has become a major environmental challenge. In effect these aquatic ecosystems are increasingly under strong anthropogenic pressure. This fact causes the deteriorations of their quality and biodiversity. That seems the cases of the surface water of Solan District. Known the importance of these ecosystems in socio-economic activities of this district, it is important to lead studies for water qualities assessment. So, the surface water quality of urban areas of Solan District was assessed using the water quality index (WQI).To realize this objective, water samples were collected from five urban areas (Arki, Baddi, Nalagarh, Parwanoo, Solan) during the summer and winter seasons and were analyzed for major physicochemical parameters, viz. pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, BOD, COD, DO,As, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, to determine its suitability for drinking and domestic purposes. In surface water pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, BOD, COD, DO were found in the range of 6.74-7.55, 0.294-0.506 dS m<sup>-1</sup>,3.71-7.79 NTU, 105.51-253.26 mg l<sup>-1</sup>, 1.51-3.14 mg l<sup>-1</sup>,101.79-166.88 mg l<sup>-1</sup>, 4.16-6.58 mg l<sup>-1</sup> consequently. Trace elements Pb, Cr, Zn, As, Cd, were found in the range of 0.04-0.28 mg l<sup>-1</sup>, 0.034-0.063 mg l<sup>-1</sup>, 0.22-0.46 mg l<sup>-1</sup>, 0.004-0.020 mg l<sup>-1</sup> and 0.002-0.008 mg l<sup>-1 </sup>respectively. All water quality parameters except Pb, Cr, Cd were within the permissible limits. Out of all urban areas WQI of Arki (33) and Solan (46) was categorized as good. Whereas WQI of Parwanoo, Baddi and Nalagarh was 69, 62, 57 respectively and was categorized as poor, indicating negative impacts o urbanization and industrialization. The study indicated that urbanization in the district has started impacting surface water sources, therefore bregular quality monitoring is required and for sustainable urbanization the implementation of stringent rules and guidelines are needed to enhance health and preserve them for future generations.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Some Medicinal Plants 2021-01-17T16:34:52+00:00 Joud Jalab Adawia Kitaz Wassim Abdelwahed Rawaa Al- Kayali <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in an eco-friendly, economical and more effective approach using (<em>Acacia cyanophylla, Phlomis syriaca</em> and <em>Scolymus hispanicus</em>) plants extracts and describing their main chemical properties and study the effect of its chemical composition on producing silver nanoparticles.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the three plants were evaluated for antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined using spectrophotometric method, but&nbsp; total saponins were determined by weight method, The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was performed by a reduction method using aqueous silver nitrate solution and aqueous extracts of the three plants. Then study its characterization in a number of ways, such as visual inspection, UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the total phenolic content ranged in extracts between (13.08 ±2.279 to 98.39 ±4.755 mg GAE/g DW). While the total flavonoid contents varied from (19.83 ±2.384 to 121.64 ±6.469 mg RE/g DW. Antioxidant activity was expressed as IC50 and the obtained results ranged from (IC<sub>50</sub>= 0.027 ±0.00038 to 0.878 ±0.045 mg/ml), the results indicated that the ethanolic <em>Acacia cyanophylla</em> extract from the six examined extracts showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid concentration and strong antioxidant activity. Also, the saponins content in the three plants ranged from (0.46 to 2.53)% and the highest amount of saponins reported in <em>Acacia cyanophylla</em> plant. The silver nanoparticles prepared using Acacia cyanophylla extract have reported visible yellowish brown color formation and the absorption peak at 460 nm indicates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and they have average diameter (134.1) nm and the polydispersity index (PdI) was suitable (0.260).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong><em> Acacia cyanophylla</em> extract has been considered as the best reducing agent among the selected plant extracts for the preparation of stable colloidal silver nanoparticles, this is due to their high content of flavonoids, phenols and saponins.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimization of Extraction and Dyeing Conditions of Natural Dye from Ratanjot Roots Using Ultrasonic Waves 2021-01-17T16:34:52+00:00 Oinam Roselyn Devi Sandeep Bains Sumeet Grewal <p>The present work involves the optimization of extraction and dyeing recipes to standardize the procedure for natural dye obtained from the roots of Ratanjot <em>(Onosma echiodes)</em> using ultrasonic waves. The resultant dye obtained at optimized extraction conditions was applied on wool fabric to study the effect of temperature, dye concentration, time and dyeing pH. Optical density and colour strength (K/S value) were studied for evaluation of optimum extraction and dyeing conditions. It was observed that extraction and dyeing parameters have significant effect on colour characteristics of dyed wool fabric. The optimized extraction conditions were; dye extraction pH 7, extraction time 60 min and temperature 60ºC while optimized dyeing parameters were; dyeing temperature 60°C,&nbsp; dye concentration 2 g/g, dyeing time 75 min and dyeing pH 5. It was also observed that the optimum dye extraction time and pH is same with the conventional heating method but there is reduction in the temperature (60°C), dyeing time and dye concentration consumption in ultrasonic extraction and dyeing method, thus saves the energy, time and amount of dye requirement. Therefore, ultrasound wave represents a promising method for increasing diffusion of dye by the effect of cavitation, as well as for improving the effectiveness of processes as compare to conventional heating method.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on Physico-chemical Properties and Fertility Status of Tumkur District (Zone-4) of Karnataka 2021-01-17T16:34:51+00:00 A. H. Kumar Naik B. M. Madhu Parashuram Chandravamshi M. Hanumanthappa <p>A study was conducted to an assessment of physico-chemical properties of soil of Chikknayakana Hally (CNH), Koratigere (KTG), Madhugiri (MDG) Pavagada (PVG), Sira and Tiptur (TPT) taluks of Tumkur district was carried out in 2018-2019 under natural farming. The main objectives of this study was to carried out the survey, collection of information and analysis of chemical properties of soil. Totally 952 soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-15 cm and the study revealed that pH ranged 3.70-7.50 acidic to neutral, and EC is slightly saline in nature. Available nitrogen content ranged from 46.5-657.1 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, phosphorus from 5.4-267.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>and potassium status in soils of different taluks ranged from 17.25 to 667 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Maximum soil samples of the area showed sufficient in manganese, Cu and Fe status, but Zinc and boron were deficient.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dual Wavelength and First Order Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Synthetic Mixture 2021-01-17T16:34:50+00:00 Heba Zhdan Nazira Sarkis <p>Two simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of binary mixture of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in their pure form and synthetic mixture in difficult ratio <em>1:20(</em>Rivaroxaban: Aspirin). The first method is the dual wavelength method, where <em>250 </em>nm and<em> 286.44</em> nm were selected as λ<sub>1</sub> and λ<sub>2</sub> for determination. And the two wave length for determination of Aspirin were <em>243</em>.<em>53</em> nm and<em> 259.2</em> nm. The linearity range was studied over concentration ranges (2 – 12) μg/mL and (40-240) μg/mL for Rivaroxaban and Aspirin respectively in both methods, with correlation coefficients not less than 0.9996 and up to 0.9999 respectively in a row. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.24μg/mL and 0.82 μg/mL for Rivaroxaban and for Aspirin<em> were7.03 </em>μg/mL and 22.01 μg/mL respectively in the first method. The second method is First order derivative. The wavelengths 275.25 nm and 250 nm were selected as zero crossing point to determine Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in a row. The LOD and LOQ were 0.31 μg/mL and 0.95 μg/mL for Rivaroxaban; and for Aspirin was found to be<em>7.13 </em>μg/Ml and <em>21.60</em>μg/mL respectively. The two methods were successfully validated as per ICH guidelines. Both methods were simple, sensitive and rapid.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ecological Risk Link to Trace Metals in Waters and Sediments along the Abobo-Doumé Fish Market in Ebrié Lagoon, Côte d’Ivoire 2021-01-17T16:34:50+00:00 Adama Diarrassouba Tuo Issiaka Ben Chérif Traoré Albert Trokourey <p>In coastal waters, trace metals continues to be among global threats due to several harmful effects on living organisms. The present study was conducted along the Abobo-Doumé Fish Market (ADFM) to assess metal contamination due to the lack of data despite the influences of several socio-economic activities. Waters (both surface and bottom layers) and surface sediments samples were collected using respectively a Niskin bottle and a Van Venn Steel, at five stations in April 2006.Trace metals concentrations were determined using the ICP-MS Instrument after proper treatment of each sample. Then, the obtained concentrations were used to calculate several pollution indexes such as Contamination Index (CI), Contamination factor (CF), Pollution Load Index (PLI), Enrichment factor (EF) and Muller’s Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) to evaluate the contamination of the selected trace metals in waters and sediments. For water samples, apart from Iron that was not detected in any sample, trace metals were found in respective ranges (in µg/L) of ND-0.2 (As), 0.2-2.0 (Cd), 2.0-20.0 (Hg), ND-1.0 (Mn) and 1.0-390.0 (Pb). According the World Health Organization guidelines values, waters were safe for As, Cd, Fe, and Mn. For Hg, apart from waters closed to the ADFM that exhibited a value of 20.0 µg/L, higher than the reference value of 6.0 µg/L, waters were safe elsewhere. Waters were found contaminated with Pb, particularly in bottom layers, with levels nine to thirty times higher than the reference value of 10.0 µg/L. For sediments, the respective ranges (in mg/kg dry weight) were observed: 2.10<sup>-4</sup>-1668.48 (As), 2.10<sup>-4</sup>-7.50 (Cd), 1.95-4554.90 (Fe), 10<sup>-4</sup>-2.070 (Mn) and 0.001-253.50 (Pb). Highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were observed in sediments from several sampling stations, indicating a contamination status of these sediments as confirmed by the calculated pollution indexes. In conclusion, waters along the Abobo-Doumé Fish Market were contaminated in Pb, while sediments exhibited highest concentrations in As, Cd and Pb. This area of the Ebrié Lagoon need attention to the exceeded concentrations of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb) observed. The present study has provided useful data for future environmental assessment along the Abobo-Doumé Fish Market.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soil Nutrients Status and Cotton Yield as Influenced by Split Application of Nitrogen and Potassium in Vertisol 2021-01-18T06:27:09+00:00 Komal A. Gade D. V. Mali B. A. Sonune S. D. Jadhao S. M. Bhoyar N. M. Konde S. M. Jadhao G. V. Thakre D. N. Nalge <p>The present investigation was conducted during 2018-19 with a view to study the effect of split application of nitrogen and potassium on yield of cotton and soil nutrient status at Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. The experiment comprised of eight different treatments and their combination with foliar spray of 1 per cent MgSO<sub>4 </sub>at two different growth stages <em>viz</em>. flowering and boll development in randomized block design with three replications. The results of the present experiment revealed that, available nutrient status of soil was slightly increased with increase in the splits of N and K fertilizer. Available N, P, K, S and exchangeable Ca in soil were significantly increased with the split application of fertilizer. The fertilizer split did not show significant effect on the exchangeable magnesium status of soil. Foliar sprays of 1 per cent MgSO<sub>4</sub> at two different growth stages <em>viz</em>. flowering and boll development irrespective of fertility levels showed slightly higher exchangeable magnesium status of soil. The lowest available N, P, K, S and exchangeable Ca and Mg was recorded in treatment of absolute control. The fertilizer splits show a consistent increase in the seed cotton yield and stalk yield of Bt cotton. Hence, it can be concluded that, application of 60:30:30 N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup> with splits of nitrogen at basal, 30, 60 and 90 DAS, 100 per cent P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> as basal and K<sub>2</sub>O in two equal splits at basal and 60 DAS recorded significantly higher seed cotton and cotton stalk yield. The seed cotton (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.913<sup>**</sup>) and stalk yield (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.935<sup>**</sup>) was significantly and positively correlated with the soil organic carbon status.</p> 2021-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##