International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2020-09-21T08:07:07+00:00 International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ISSN: 2231-3443)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications in all aspects&nbsp; of pure and applied chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and genetics, inorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of solids, liquids, polymers and interfaces between different phases, neurochemistry, nuclear chemistry, modern transmutation, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, astrochemistry and cosmochemistry, quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry, sonochemistry, agrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, femtochemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry,&nbsp; mechanochemistry, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, radiochemistry, synthetic chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, thermochemistry, chemistry in industry and interactions between chemistry and environment.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Antimicrobial Activity and Interactions of Toddalia asiatica Isolated Coumarins with Two Known Drugs 2020-09-20T14:39:22+00:00 I. Onjero B. F. Juma J. C. Korir R. W. Kamau <p>Five coumarins namely, 5, 7-dimethoxy-6-(3'-hydroxy-3'-methylbutan-2-oxo) coumarin coumarin (<strong>1</strong>), Toddalolactone (<strong>2</strong>), Coumurrenol (<strong>3</strong>), gleinadiene (<strong>4</strong>) and Toddaculin (<strong>5</strong>) were isolated from either the stem and/or root bark of <em>Toddalia asiatica</em> , with compound <strong>1</strong> being reported for the first time. These were obtained using chromatographic methods and identified using spectroscopic techniques, as well as comparison of their physical data with already published results. Combinations of compound <strong>3</strong> and fluconazole displayed additive effect in inhibiting the growth of <em>Penicillium digitatum</em> with reduced MIC to 125 <em>μ</em>g/mL compared to that of fluconazole alone at 250 <em>μ</em>g /mL. Combination of compounds <strong>1</strong> and <strong>3</strong> also showed additive effect in inhibiting <em>Rhizopus stolonifer </em>lowering the MIC from 500 <em>μ</em>g/mL (for both molecules) to 250 μg /mL. Interaction in antibacterial activity between two isolated compounds <strong>1</strong> and <strong>3</strong> was also evident. These lowered the MIC in action against<em> Staphylococcus aureus </em>to 250 <em>μ</em>g/mL compared to individual compounds with MIC of 500 <em>μ</em>g/mL while showing additive effect. All the crude extracts apart from that of stem bark hexane and the individual isolated compounds showed considerable activity against all the organisms tested.</p> 2020-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Chemical Inducers of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) for the Management of Late Blight Disease of Potato 2020-09-18T10:23:19+00:00 S. H. Peerzada H. S. Viswanath K. A. Bhat <p>Late blight of potato is one of the most devastating diseases with great economic importance. Among several disease management strategies, ISR (Induced systemic resistance) plays an important role in checking the disease spread. So, in the present study, nine different SAR chemical inducers <em>viz</em>. Phosphoric acid, Salicylic acid, Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA), Benzoic acid, Benzothiadiazole, Dichloro-iso nicotinic acid (INA) and Kinetin were evaluated at 0.05% (C1), 0.10% (C2) and 0.15% (C3) concentrations, whereas Calcium chloride and Ascorbic Acid at 3.5% (C1), 5.0% (C2), 6.5% (C3) and 1.5% (C1), 2.0% (C2), 2.5% (C3) respectively at three different concentrations each, along with positive and negative checks of standard fungicide metalaxyl 8+ macozeb 64 WP @0.25% and control(water) respectively by spraying them at 2-3 compound leaf stage of plants which were challenged by <em>P. infestans</em> inoculations five days later in pots to assess disease incidence and intensity which were recorded at weekly intervals of four stages (stage I-IV). It was found that the foliar spray with benzothiadiazole (BTH) @ 0.10 to 0.15% was best in delaying the appearance of first symptoms of the disease by 11 days followed by salicylic acid@ 0.10 to 0.15% and ascorbic acid @ 2.5% which delayed the symptom appearance by 9 days, whereas the standard fungicidal spray of metalaxyl 8 + mancozeb 64 WP at the recommended concentration of 0.25% delayed the symptom appearance by only 8 days when compared to water sprayed check. It was also found that on an average, BTH sprays completely arrested the late blight development (0% intensity) followed by salicylic acid, INA and ascorbic acid sprays exhibiting 0.46-0.74% mean blight intensity compared to 2.00 and 6.28 percent intensity recorded, respectively, on metalaxyl 8 + mancozeb 64 WP and water-sprayed plants one week after first appearance of disease in control pots (stage I). These treatments with chemical inducers showed an increase in the activity of peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases in the infected potato leaves as a result of SAR activity at all stages (stage I-IV). Average maximum peroxidase activity of 19.01-20.66 mg and polyphenol oxidase activity of 2.70-2.89 mg were recorded in the potato leaves during stage-I, sprayed with either BTH, benzoic acid, phosphoric acid or salicylic acid as compared to only (16.78 mg and 2.28 mg), (4.66 mg and 1.36 mg) recorded in (metalaxyl 8 + mancozeb 64 WP) and water-sprayed check respectively. The highest concentrations of all the test chemicals, in general, showed increased biochemical activity thereby yielding lesser blight intensity compared to their lower concentrations.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physico-Chemical Treatment of a Wastewater Collector Loaded with Metals and Suspension Material by The Solution of Raw Carica papaya Latex 2020-09-21T08:07:07+00:00 Togbe Finagnon Crépin Alexis Yete Pélagie Yovo Franck Wotto Valentin <p>The papaya (<em>Carica papaya</em>), of the family Caricaceae, is a tree-like tropical plant, native to Central and South America. Papaya cultivation extends to all warm and humid countries. The present study consists in using the solution of raw <em>Carica papaya</em> latex (SLCP) cultivated in Benin as a natural biodegradable flocculant in a physico-chemical process to treat liquid discharges loaded with metals including iron, copper, zinc, and manganese; and suspended matter, and also to test its efficiency against other products commonly used in wastewater treatment. The tests were carried out on water samples from the wastewater collector that runs through the Agla district in Cotonou.</p> <p>The comparative study with a commonly used flocculant, aluminium sulphate, showed outstanding competitiveness with a high flocculation power for the solution of <em>Carica papaya</em> raw latex. In six water samples from the collector with average concentrations of iron, copper, zinc and manganese of 18.20 mg/L ; 2.50mg/L ; 3.80 mg/L and 3.70 mg/L respectively, the percentages of metal removal exceeded 90% for iron and manganese and around 85% for copper and zinc with the combination FeCl<sub>3</sub> + SLCP. The NaOH + SLCP combination showed a very significant effect on the removal of metals (96% reduction) and suspended matter.</p> 2020-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Site-specific Nutrient Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity 2020-09-20T14:39:21+00:00 Ramesh Chand Bana S. S. Yadav A. C. Shivran Prabhoo Singh Vinod Kumar Kudi <p>Nutrient management plays a crucial role in achieving self-sufficiency in food grain production. High price index of chemical fertilizers coupled with mount pollution problem gave rise to interest in precision nutrient management tools. Site specific nutrient management (SSNM) increases and maintains the yield by optimizing the balance between supply and demand of nutrients. Nutrient application as per SSNM concept resulted in significantly higher grain yields of maize, rice, wheat and other important crop over recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) and farmer’s fertilizers practices. The SSNM is real time feeding of crops with nutrients while recognizing the inherent spatial variability which enhances crop productivity, nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and avoids nutrient wastage. For effective SSNM, utilization of different sensing devices of soil and plant nutrient status, decision support systems, GIS, remote sensing, simulation models and nenoparticles play an important role. Traditional techniques<em> like</em> balanced fertilization, use of nitrification inhibitors and slow-release nitrogenous fertilizers (SRNF) are also used to attain higher productivity and reduce environmental pollution. This paper deals with the SSNM approaches which are able to enhance crop productivity, NUE and sustainability.</p> 2020-09-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##