International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ISSN: 2231-3443)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications in all aspects&nbsp; of pure and applied chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and genetics, inorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of solids, liquids, polymers and interfaces between different phases, neurochemistry, nuclear chemistry, modern transmutation, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, astrochemistry and cosmochemistry, quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry, sonochemistry, agrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, femtochemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry,&nbsp; mechanochemistry, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, radiochemistry, synthetic chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, thermochemistry, chemistry in industry and interactions between chemistry and environment.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry) (International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Wed, 14 Oct 2020 11:34:46 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Zeolite on Soil Properties and Soil Fertility for Rice Cultivation <p>The pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate effect of different levels of nitrogen and zeolite on soil properties in rice under greenhouse condition during <em>kharif </em>2018-19. The investigation showed that soil bulk density was decrease from 1.5 to 1.02, 1.24 and 1.29 g cc<sup>-1</sup> by the zeolite application at 9, 6, and 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Water holding capacity of soil was increased from 43.53 to 55.49% with different levels of zeolites. Cation exchange capacity of soil significantly increased by 50.45, 44.54 and 29.22% with the application of zeolite at 9, 6 and 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Highest value of soil pH and EC were 7.6 and 1.27 dS m <sup>-1</sup>observed in 9 t ha <sup>-1</sup> zeolite treatment. Fertility status of soil <em>i.e.</em> available nitrogen and available phosphorus content also improved by the application of zeolite at different rates.</p> V. B. Pandit, K. Jeevan Rao, M. Rajeshwar Naik, G. E. Ch. Vidya Sagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mechanisms of Phorbol Ester Toxicity, Determined by Molecular Modelling <p>Phorbol esters are toxic phytochemicals, whose main biological target is protein kinase C. They bind irreversibly to the protein, causing cell damage. Using computer modelling, we have determined, for the first time, features and mechanisms that lead to the toxicity of phorbol esters.</p> <p>Protein kinase C – delta (PKC-δ) was used as a target protein in computational docking studies with phorbol esters that differ in molecular structure. Binding conformations and stability of ester linkages were analyzed to evaluate their relationship with experimental observations. Results show that an active phorbol ester must exhibit two features: interaction with specific amino acid residues at the binding site and covering the area with a hydrophobic surface. Toxicity of an active phorbol ester is inversely proportional to the intrinsic reactivity of the ester linkage. Phorbol esters bearing free acid chains can directly activate PKC-δ but jatropha phorbol esters are restricted by their acid-moiety ring formations, suggesting similar mechanism of interaction with other phorbol-ester protein targets.</p> A. Wakandigara, L. R. M. Nhamo, J. Kugara, P. Mushonga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Integrated Weed Management Practices on Yield and Economics of Semidry Rice <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>Kharif, </em>2019 at Agricultural Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to study the effect of integrated weed management practices on weed density, weed dry weight, yield and economics of semidry rice. Among all the treatments pyrazosulfuron ethyl @ 20 g a.i ha<sup>-1 </sup><em>fb</em> chlorimuron ethyl + metsulfuron methyl @ 4 g a.i ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ fenoxaprop-p-ethyl @ 60 g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> <em>fb </em>mechanical weeding at 50 DAS recorded significantly lower weed density, weed dry weight with highest weed control efficiency. Grain yield and B:C ratio were also recorded highest from the same treatment in semidry rice system of cultivation. This treatment was statistically comparable with hand weeding plot.</p> V. Soujanya, M. Goverdhan, T. Ram Prakash, A. Srinivas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals Derived from Umbrella Plant (Cyperus alternifolius Linn.) <p>Plant–based nanocrystals have gained wide research interest due to its application in nano–reinforcement. Hence, the study investigated the stems of umbrella plant as potentials source of cellulose fibers to synthesize cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The synthesis of CNCs were conducted using acid hydrolysis with 10 mL 64% w/w sulfuric acid for each gram of purified cellulose at 45°C for 30 min. The surface morphology, structural, physical and thermal properties of CNCs were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X–ray diffractometer (XRD), and simultaneous thermal analyzer, respectively. The result showed that the CNCs were mixture of rod–like shape and spherical morphology. The CNC rods were less than 20 nm width and 200–300 nm length when viewed under FESEM. However, the CNC rods were shorter when viewed under TEM and had a width less than 5 nm and length between 20–50 nm. The spherical CNCs that were seen only under TEM were less than 20 nm in diameter. The FTIR spectra showed that the CNCs were composed of crystalline cellulose I wherein the molecular structure of cellulose was preserved after the hydrolysis. The XRD patterns showed that the CNCs were highly crystalline with crystallinity index value of 94.48%. Lastly, the CNCs exhibited a three–stage thermal decomposition behavior.</p> Marcelino R. Tradio Jr., Brian John Sarno ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 17 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000