Open Access Original Research Article

Fe3+-Montmorillonite K10 as an Efficient, Green and Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Synthesis of Mannich Type Reaction under Solvent-free Condition

Suneeta Bhandari, Virendra Kasana

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IRJPAC/2018/41983

A simple and efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of Mannich type  reaction has been developed using recyclable Fe+3-montmorillonite K10 (Fe+3@K10) under solvent-free condition. The reaction of aromatic aldehydes, aromatic anilines and aryl ketones produced β-amino carbonyl derivatives in good to excellent yields. The developed method making use of a recyclable catalyst is economical and eco-friendly and affords good yields under  mild reaction conditions.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimalarial Biflavonoids from the Roots of Ochna serrulata (Hochst.) Walp

Monica M. Ndoile, Fanie R. Van Heerden

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IRJPAC/2018/42440

Aims: To isolate and evaluate the biological activities of the compounds present in the roots of Ochna serrulata.

Study Design:  Laboratory isolation of compounds by using various chromatographic methods, and cytotoxicity and antimalarial evaluations of the isolated compounds.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Chemistry and Physics, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), from September 2009 to June 2012.

Methodology: Methanol extract of the pulverised roots of O. serrulata were subjected to different chromatographic techniques. Structures were established by using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and MS. The compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity tests to evaluate their growth inhibitory effects on renal (TK 10), melanoma (UACC62) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines using a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Antimalarial evaluations were done against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum (FCR-3).

Results: Three new biflavonoids; 4,4′,7-tri-O-methylisocampylospermone A (1), 4‴-de-O-methylafzelone A (2) and serrulone A (3) along with irisolone 4′-methyl ether (4), 3',4'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone (5), iriskumaonin 3′-methyl ether (6), lophirone L (7), a mixture of biflavanone 1 and campylospermone A, syringaresinol (8), and 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (9). Compound 1 showed antimalarial activity with IC50 11.46 µM, followed by compound 3 (26.52 µM) and lastly compound 2 (38.43 µM). In the same test, 4 demonstrated antimalarial activity at IC50 40.72 µM, 8 (42.66 µM), 6 (93.69 µM), 9 (106.48 µM) and the rest did not show any significant activity. Upon cytotoxicity evaluation against three different cancer cell lines, the compounds displayed no significant activity.

Conclusion: The genus is comprised of biflavonoids of varying nature, some of which expressed interesting biological activities with no/low toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

M-Polynomial and Degree Based Topological Indices for Silicon Oxide

P. J. N. Thayamathy, P. Elango, M. Koneswaran

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IRJPAC/2018/42645

Silican oxide (SiO2) is the most abundant oxide present on the surface of the earth which has a wide spectrum of technological applications due to it's various chemical and physical properties. The topological index is a numerical representation of a molecular structure. The first topological index in chemical graph theory is the Winer index which is a distance-based topological index. The degree-based topological indices are the most studied type of topological indices which play a prominent role in chemical graph theory. In this paper, we derive the M-Polynomial for Silican oxide SiO2 layer structure and calculate some of the important degree based topological indices using this M-polynomial. We derive the M-Polynomial derivative formula for the ABC-index and calculate the ABC-index by using this derived formula.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Pigment Grade Red Iron Oxide from Mill Scale

Md. Saiful Quddus, Md. Lutfor Rahman, Juliya Khanam, Bristy Biswas, Nahid Sharmin, Samina Ahmed, A. J. M. Tahuran Neger

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IRJPAC/2018/42935

This work aims at conversion of mill scale to produce value-added pigment grade red iron oxide by multi-step process, such as milling, acid treatment, mixing with redox reagents and calcination. In all steel re-rolling industries, mill scale is a solid waste material produced as a result of hot rolling of steel. Scales are formed due to oxidation of steel at high temperature. It can’t be used along with iron ore or bar or plate, because products obtained by using this scale contain unwanted defects of scale pitting resulting brittleness. In Bangladesh, they are mainly dumped in landfills which results environmental pollutions and other serious problems. In this study, the experimental conditions like amount of sulphuric acid and type of redox reagents were investigated in order to determine the optimal ones. The phase of as-prepared red oxide was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and morphology and the particle size was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analyzer. The results revealed that mill scale waste can be successfully converted into value-added pigment grade red iron oxide having purity 95.3 percent with satisfactory oil absorption value (29.99%) and other physical properties needed for pigment which makes the mill scale as an alternative source of iron for the preparation of pigment grade red oxide. The prepared sample was found to be hematite phase having rhombohedral crystal structure from x-ray diffraction analysis.

Open Access Review Article

Spatiotemporal Variation of the Phenol Level of the Ebrié Lagoon (Ivory Coast)

Tossou Germain, Ekou Lynda, Ekou Tchirioua, Yacouba Zoungranan, Kpidi Habib Yapo, Ouattara Lamoussa

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IRJPAC/2018/42413

Toxic compounds are frequently found in discharges (industrial and domestic effluents) with very variable biodegradability. Among those that are feared for the ecosystem are phenols. Phenol and its derivatives are considered by the Environmental Protection Agency as important pollutants. The objective of this study is the determination of the level phenol of the waters of the Ebrié lagoon. The water samples were collected in five bays of the Ebrié lagoon namely; Koumassi, Vridi, Plateau, Cocody, and Bingerville. The phenol values found for samples taken from the water range from 0.11 to 9.493 mg / L, exceeding the allowable standards. Pre-discharge purification is therefore essential given the toxicity of this type of compounds.