The extraction and analytical multiresidue method, has been developed and validated for quantification of trace levels of 74 pesticide belong to different chemical groups in organic and conventional Olive farm soil samples (Old, medial and new olive farms which is 25, 15 and 5 years respectively). Soil samples collected from Al-Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia, and extracted by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Triple Quadrupole (GC-MS/MSTQD). The method reveals that experimental results were highly satisfactory in respect of various analytical parameters such as linearity, recovery and precision especially with the tested soil samples which is are complex matrixes, preparation is a critical step, and one that is usually expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the analyzed pesticides were in the range of 1.01-13.91 µg kg-1 and 3.02 - 29.15 µg kg-1, respectively. Pesticide recoveries form spiked soil samples with different pesticides ranged from 65.5 to 111.7%. The proposed method featured good sensitivity, pesticide quantification limits were low enough, and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.29 to 13.32%. Pesticide residues being detected by applying the modified QuEChERS and GCMSMSTQD method, the levels were ranged from 43.00 to 2.00 µg kg-1 for 18 different pesticides, 1.99 to 1.00 µg/kg-1 for 16 different pesticides, 0.99 to 0.50 µg/kg-1 for 12 different pesticides and lower than 0.50 µg kg-1 for 28 different pesticide residues. The proposed QuEChERS and GC-MS/MSTQD method were applied successfully for the residues extraction and determination the 74 pesticides.
Canola oil is extracted from Rapeseed which of the family of the Brassicaceae. The oil is used in cosmetic, medicine, cooking, and soaps. In this study the chemical properties of canola oil which are acid value, percent free fatty acid, saponification value and peroxide value were determined. It has been shown 0.5035 mg/g, 0.253%, 186.26 mg/g and 1.05 mg/kg respectively. Also physical properties like density and colour was found to be 0.914 g/ml, and yellow respectively. Chemical bonds and functional group were also detected in canola oil. It shown to contain a double bond and terpenoids, by simple test, also was shown the absence of phenol functional group. The composition of canola oil was studied by IR analysis to detect the functional group like carbonyl group, C-H saturated bond and O-H group. The concentration of metal ions like Na, Fe, Zn and Cu were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and was found to be 9.3885, 0.632, 0.0549, 0.116 mg/L respectively. The fatty acids in canola oil have been identified by the GC - FID, and shown to have a number of fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic, palmitic and other acids.
Aqueous solutions of different pH from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC.) extracts were prepared. Effects of different doses/dose rates of gamma irradiation on the red cabbage aqueous solutions were investigated. Solutions were exposed to 1- 10 kGy of gamma irradiation doses at different rates ranged between 0.42513 to 38.883 kGy/h. The absorbance changes, which are due to gamma irradiation exposures, were determined by a spectrophotometry analysis. Results demonstrate that under gamma irradiation exposure variations (doses and dose rates), the best linearity (R2>0.97) of red cabbage solution extract was at a pH=3.3. Results could be of great importance and obviously indicated the efficacy of a natural red cabbage dye as dosimetric indicators.
Aims: The present study aims to quantify major secoiridoids (amaroswerin and amrogentin) in different parts of Swertia chirayita using HPLC to distinguish its parts having a high content of amaroswerin and amarogentin, so that these parts must be included in plant material when the plant is used for estimation or extraction of these phytoconstituents.
Study Design: Statistical comparison was performed using OP-STAT software with CRD and was considered statistically significant.
Place and Duration of Study: The plant material including all studied parts was procured form field plants were grown at Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Farm, Shilly (latitude-N 30˚54′30" and longitude E 77˚07′30", elevation 1550 m) under Department of Forest Products, UHF, Solan (H.P.) India. The study was undertaken in the Departmental laboratory and in the period between September 2016 and December 2016.
Methodology: Waters binary HPLC unit with Waters HPLC pump 515, dual λ absorbance detector 2487 and Empower II software was used for quantification of phytoconstituents under study. Samples of different plant parts were extracted by using soxhlet method with methanol as solvent.
Results: In different parts of Swertia chirayita, amaroswerin content (%) was reported highest in flowers (0.741%), followed by leaves (0.386%), roots (0.188%) and lowest in stem part (0.226%) and amarogentin content (%) was reported as highest in flowers (0.617%), followed by leaves (0.447%), stem (0.426%) and lowest in roots (0.369%) of field grown plants.
Conclusion: It is conluded that amaroswerin and amarogentin were present in all studied parts of Swertia chirayita. Amaroswerin and amarogentin content was ranged from 0.160% to 0.741% and 0.369% to 0.617% respectively in different plant parts under study.
Aim: In the present investigation, our aim is to develop and validate HPLC method as per ICH guidelines for analyisis of picroside-I and picroside-II in Picrorhiza kurroa.
Place and Duration of Study: Investigation was undertaken in Department of Forest Products, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India and in the period between June 2016 and December 2016.
Methodology: The system used is of Waters binary HPLC unit with Waters HPLC pump 515, dual λ absorbance detector 2487 and Empower II software. Standards of picroside-I and picroside-II were purchased and used for HPLC method development and validation. The developed HPLC method was validated for parameters as linearity, range, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ as mentioned in ICH guidelines.
Results: The analytical column, Sunfire C18 (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) was operated at ambient temperature. Isocratic elution with A methanol and B water (40:60, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.9ml/min was selected. UV detection was done at 270 nm and run time was given forty minutes for standard compounds and forty five minutes for samples of Picrorhiza kurroa.
Conclusion: Method was found to be satisfactory in terms of linearity, high accuracy and precision. The method was successfully applied to the extracts made of different market samples of Picrorhiza kurroa.