Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of Newer Insecticides against Spotted Pod Borer [Maruca vitrata (Geyer)], on Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) in North Coastal Andhra Pradesh

K. Swathi, P. Seetha Ramu, S. Dhurua, M. Suresh

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v18i230083

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of novel insecticides against the spotted pod borer on rice fallow blackgram.

Study Design: Randomised Block Design (RBD) was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Work: The present study was carried out at College farm Agricultural College, Naira during Rabi 2017-2018 season.

Methodology: The spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious pest of blackgram through out the growth period especially in flowering and pod development stages in North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Management of this pest becomes difficult due to its concealed nature of feeding inside flowers and pods. Different newer insecticides were evaluated for the management of M. vitrata on blackgram cultivar LBG-752 under rice fallow situations with ten treatments replicated thrice.

Results: The current study indicated that among all the insecticidal treatments chlorantraniliprole 9.3% + λ cyhalothrin 4.6% @ 0.5 ml l-1 was found to be very effective by recording 75.91 per cent overall mean reduction in M. vitrata larval population with lowest pod damage (7.04%) over control (60.58%) and also recorded highest grain yield (8.31 q ha-1) followed by chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 0.0037% and flubendiamide @ 39.35 SC 0.00787% with 72.04 and 67.30 per cent overall reduction in mean larval population of M. vitrata over untreated control. The cost - benefit (C:B) ratio for all the treatments revealed that chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 0.0037% was highly economical with a C : B of 1: 17.14 followed by spinosad 45 SC with cost - benefit (C:B) ratio 1: 15.28.

Conclusion: Usage of newer insecticides with novel modes of action are highly effective against spotted pod borer with an additional increase in yield of blackgram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amalgamation of Novel Schiff Base Ligand and Its Transition Metal Complexes and Their Biological Activity

B. Akila, A. Xavier

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v18i230084

Schiff base synthesized from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 2-2’ (ethylene dioxy) bis ethylenediamine (L1) and its Metal complexes, [M (II) (L)6](where M= Mn(II), Ru(III), Cu(II)and V(V) L= Schiff base moiety), have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic measurements (infrared, electronic spectroscopy, 1H-NMR, EPR and Mass spectroscopy ). Elemental analysis of the metal complexes was suggested that the stoichiometry ratio is 1:1 (metal-ligand). The electronic spectra suggest an octahedral geometry for MC1and MC2 Schiff base complexes and distorted octahedral for MC3 and MC4 complexes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates have been screened for their invitro test antibacterial activity against three bacteria, gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Klebsiella pheneuammonia and Salmonella typhi). Two strains of fungus (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more anti fungal activity compare then antibacterial activity and antioxidant properties. The complexes are highly active than the free Schiff-base ligand.



Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of PB(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Functionalized and Carbonized Groundnut Shell

Ikemefuna Usifoh, Rosemary Odinigwe, M. U. Obidiegwu

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v18i230085

Groundnut shells were modified through functionalization and carbonization processes to produce three distinct adsorbents for adsorption of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies was carried out under varying conditions of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, metal ion concentration and temperature after the results were documented. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that the adsorbents performed optimally at a pH of 11 and the adsorption process was dependent upon changes in contact time. Adsorption capacity was observed to increase with increase in adsorbent dosage and decrease with increase in lead ion concentration across all adsorbents. Highest metal ion removal was by the GS-KOHC where 239.86 mg/g of lead ion was removed from the aqueous solution followed by the GS-HCLC at 228.0750 mg/g and then the GS-TPP adsorbent was least at 179.1235 mg/g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Nutritional and Phytochemical Constituents of Bitter Leaf to Some Drying Methods

Johnson Odukoya, Uzoma Charles, Julianah Odukoya

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v18i230086

Aim: Food processing is one of the post-harvest factors that affect the quality of food products. This research was aimed at evaluating the impact of two drying methods (sun-drying and freeze-drying) on the nutritional and phytochemical contents of Vernonia amygdalina Del.

Study Design: Processed vegetables of V. amygdalina were subjected to the selected drying methods and the composition of the dried samples was thereafter compared.

Place and Duration of Study: The eight-month study was carried out at the Food Chemistry Research Laboratory, Chemistry Department, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Harvested fresh samples of V. amygdalina were first cleaned with distilled water prior to drying. The dried vegetable samples were then ground to powder and subjected to proximate analysis via the application of recommended methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Other nutritional and phytochemical analyses were achieved using standard methods. Independent-samples t-test was used to compare the difference in composition.

Results: The results showed that except for crude fibre content, there was a statistical significant difference (p < 0.05) in the proximate composition of the vegetable samples obtained from the two drying methods while the freeze-drying method favoured the concentration of most of the dietary minerals tested. The two drying methods were found to give a similar phytochemicals screening result with the sun-dried samples having a higher concentration of total phenols and total flavonoids. The freeze-dried samples, however, had higher vitamin A and C contents.

Conclusion: The research outcome revealed the suitability of the freeze-drying method for enhanced/improved drying action on vegetables and to have the optimum level of crude protein, major dietary minerals, vitamin A and C in the dried vegetables. Further work is needed to assess the impact of the selected drying methods on antinutrients composition.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Photocatalytic Reduction of Some Metal Ions in Aqueous Solution Using UV- Titanium Dioxide System

I. O. Ekwere, M. Horsfall, J. O. E. Otaigbe

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2019/v18i230087

The photocatalytic reduction of Cu (II), Pb (II), Cd (II) and Cr (VI) ions in aqueous solution has been investigated. The photocatalyst utilized was nano titanium dioxide, composed of 80% anatase and 20% rutile; the UV light source was a 15 W UV bulb with a wavelength of 254 nm. The results obtained indicated a reduction efficiency order as follows; Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+. It was observed that these results correlate with the respective reduction potentials of the metal ions. The effect of pH on the photocatalytic reduction of the metal ions was also carried out and results obtained indicated that with the exception of Cr (VI) ions, higher percentage removal of metal ions from their aqueous solution was recorded at alkaline pH than at acidic pH. This was attributed to an extensive formation of precipitate by the metal ions at alkaline pH. Kinetic studies revealed that the removal of metal ions from their solutions largely followed the pseudo- first-order kinetics. Therefore, the results of this study will be useful in metal ion removal from industrial waste water using photocatalytic process.