Open Access Original Research Article

An Analytical Investigation Study of Potential Human Health Risks Caused by Petroleum-contaminated Surface Water Containing Various Toxic Heavy Metals at the Okpoka Creek, Niger-Delta, Nigeria

Fawole Charles, S. J. Salami, D. A. Dashak, H. A. Chimezie-Nwosu

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230382

Surface water samples were collected from the Okpoka Creek, Niger-Delta using the grab samples method and were analytically investigated for petroleum contamination. The liquid-liquid extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons was carried out following standard procedures of U.S EPA 3510; 1664 method and ASTM D3695 -95(2013). The US EPA 3005A method was adopted for acid wet digestion (Aqua regia mixture of concentrated HNO3 and HCl  in ratio 1:3) for toxic heavy metal (HMs) determination. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) was analytically identified and quantified with the representative extract (sample) using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD) Agilent Technologies 7890A in adherence to the standard analytical method of U.S EPA 8270;625. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) Buck Scientific 210VGP in adherence in to the manufacturer’s specifications was employed for HMs. The recorded elevated levels of the TPHs were significantly above the permissible limit of DPR/EGASPIN and HMs were also overwhelmingly above permissible limits of relevant regulatory agencies. The elevated concentrations of these contaminants of concern provided evidences of severe contamination in the study site and severe threats to environment and human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morpho-physical Properties of Soils of Kanamadi South Sub-watershed of Karnataka

Ashay D. Souza, P. L. Patil

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 12-25
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230383

An investigation was carried out to determine the morpho-physical status of soils of Kanamadi South sub- watershed in Karnataka state of India. A detailed soil survey of Kanamadi South sub watershed was carried out using IRS P6 LISS-IV image and a total of ten pedon location  which were well distributed in Kanamadi South sub-watershed was selected. The soils were shallow to deep. Colour of pedons varied from 10 YR 2/1 (black) to 10 YR 4/3 (brown). Soil texture varied from clay to clay loam, having loose to moderately subangular to angular blocky in structure with few fine roots distributed in surface horizons. Generally, the clay content increased with depth. Consistency of soil pedons ranged from slightly hard to hard when dry, friable to firm when moist, slightly sticky to very sticky and slightly plastic to very plastic when wet. The maximum water holding capacity of soil horizons ranged from 59.65 to 79.15 per cent and generally increased down the depth. The bulk density of pedons varied from 1.17 to 1.37 Mg m-3. In general, bulk density varied with depth with lowest bulk density at surface and highest recorded in sub surface depths. The field capacity varied from 28.21% to 41.32 %.The morphological and physical properties study in area helps for resource inventorization for successful watershed planning for soil and water conservation to enhance the potential of fertility of soils and major fertility enhancement to increase the soil productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of the Climate Change and the Recent Development of an Artificial Tropical Estuary on the Mobility and Distribution of Phosphorus: Case of Vridi Channel (Côte d'Ivoire)

N’DA Samuel, YAO Marcel Konan, Trokourey Albert

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 26-43
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230384

This study focused on the effects of the climate change and the recent modification of Vridi channel on the mobility and distribution of phosphorus (P) in its superficial sediments. To best estimate this fact, the annual mobility and distribution of P were followed and compared before and after this development during two different annual periods, marked differently by the climate change effects. The first annual period has covered the period from April 2014 to March 2015 and this channel presented its former hydromorphology, with hydroclimatic conditions very close to that normal of Abidjan district. The second period annual has covered the period from October 2018 to September 2019 and this channel presented its current hydromorphology and, characterized by a rainfall drop and high ambient air temperatures compared to that normal of Abidjan district.

A monthly sampling has been done at 5 cm below the surface sediment in this channel during each annual period. The mobility and distribution of P was assessed in the superficial sediments of this channel according two sequential extraction protocols: the modified Van Eck method and the modified Olsen method. Total phosphorus was assessed according AFNOR NF X31-147.

The total phosphorus contents and all P fractions contents of these superficial sediments assessed by these two sequential methods and obtained over the period from April 2014 to March 2015 are higher than those determined over the period from October 2018 to September 2019. Thus, the recent development of this estuary, with as a corollary the modification of the physical and chemical characteristics of its superficial sediments, would have had the effect of clearing P towards the Atlantic Ocean and/or accelerating its sedimentation; hence the reduction of eutrophication risk of this aquatic ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immobilization Potential of Cow Manure for Heavy Metal Remediation from Refuse Dump Soil

Ezeudu Emeka Christian, Oli Christian Chukwuemeka, . Enenche, Elaigwu Daniel, Anekwe Ozioma Juliana, Okoye Patrice-Anthony Chudi, Ajiwe Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 44-55
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230385

Aims: The present study investigated the effect of cow manure amendment on fractionation and availability of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in refuse dump soil.

Study Design: A greenhouse study experiment was conducted to determine the uptake of the metals by Ricinus communis in dump soil treated with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% cow manure.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria, between May and October 2018.

Methodology: Experimental pots were filled with 2.0kg refuse dump soil in a green house and treated with 5%, 10% and 20% of Cow manure in three replicates per treatment. The seeds of Ricinus communis were planted in each pot and analysed after 12 weeks of planting for heavy metals using AAS. Sequential extraction was carried out on the treated soil after the harvest with each extract further analysed for heavy metals using AAS.

Results: Application of cow manure significantly (p ˂ 0.05) affected the redistribution and the mobility of the heavy metals in the dump soil; as the concentration of the amendment increased, heavy metals in the mobile fractions reduced. 20% amendment had the best immobilization effect as the mobility factor decreased with increasing manure amendment. The mobility factors at 20% amendment were 18.34%, 15.82%, 5.23%, 15.86%, 25.56% and 12.81% for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn respectively with the general trend of metal forms given as: residual > bound to organic > bound to Fe-Mn oxide > bound to carbonate > exchangeable.

Conclusion: Cow manure amendment of the dump soil decreased the availability of heavy metals for plant uptake; and the metal uptake generally decreased as percentage amendment increased. Cow manure is therefore a good immobilizing agent for remediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in polluted soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Validated RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Valsartan and Nebivolol in Bulk and Dosage Forms

Bayan Albakour, Saleh Trefi, Yaser Bitar

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 56-65
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230386

The main reason of this work to develop a sensitive, rapid, economic, precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method to separate and assay the simultaneous determination of Valsartan and Nebivolol as a minor component in bulk and dosage forms. The separation was carried out using SHIMADZU UV-photo diode array detector at 200, 245 nm for Nebivolol and Valsartan respectively equipped with reverse phase C18 column Sunniest 5μm, 4.6 mm, 250 mm at 40˚C oven temperature, flow rate of 1 mL/min with mobile phase consist of 70:30 methanol: 10 mM phosphate buffer pH=3. The retention time of Nebivolol and Valsartan were to be found at 4.3 min and 8 min respectively. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in concentration range of 45.8-229% r=0.9997 for Nebivolol and the range 55-166%, r=0.9999 for Valsartan. Robustness in the case of little change of some chromatographic conditions. Validation of the proposed method was carried out for its linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and assay. This method can be applied easily in routine work analysis to detrmine the estimation of nebivolol and valsartan in bulk and dosage forms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Foliar Application of Compost tea on Growth, Yield and Quality of Soybean [Glycine max (L)]

N. Shrinivas, P. H. Vaidya, P. H. Gourkhede

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 66-73
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230387

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of the year 2016-17 with soybean variety MAUS -71 as test crop in Vertisol. With three replication and eight treatments viz,T1 - Control (RDF 100%), T2-100% RDF + Water spray, T3 - RDF + Compost tea @ 10% foliar spray, T4 - RDF + Compost tea @ 15% foliar spray, T5-RDF + Compost tea @ 20% foliar spray, T6 - RDF + Compost tea @ 25% foliar spray, T7 - RDF + Compost tea @ 50% foliar spray,T8 - RDF + Compost tea @ 75% foliar spray. The results revealed that Among the different doses of foliar application of compost tea with RDF,” application of RDF + compost tea @ 50% foliar spray significantly superior growth attributes viz. plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, dry matter and minimum growth attributes were observed in the control treatment at flowering, pod development and  harvest stage. Maximum yield of soybean (2050.0 kg ha-1) was recorded with application of  RDF + Compost tea @ 50% foliar spray. The quality of soybean grain improved due to application of T7 - RDF+ compost tea @ 50% foliar spray which recorded higher values of oil content (19.90%) protein content (31.44%) and protein yield (644.29 kg ha-1).This indicated that the application of 30:60:30 kg ha-1 N : P2O5 : K2O with foliar application of compost tea @ 50 percent (30,45,60 DAS) to soybean was found beneficial for increase in growth, yield and quality of soybean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Physicochemical Parameters and Mineral Compositions of Hand Dug Well Water Samples Collected from Selected Local Government Areas in Oyo State, Nigeria

S. A. Okewole, L. O. Oyekunle, O. O. Akande, A. I. Amusat, A. I. Amuzat, A. O. Ojo, O. G. Olugbodi, A. M. Olasupo

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 74-81
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230388

Potable water is essential for human survival but contaminations through human activities have jeo

pardized it. This research will create awareness on the condition of hand dug well water used and reduce transmission of diseases in the study areas. The study deals with the determination of physic-chemical parameters and Mineral composition of water samples collected in the month of September, 2019 from hand dug well from selected local government areas in Oyo State Nigeria, (Ibadan North-East, Ibarapa Central, Afijio, Ogbomoso South and Iseyin local government). The parameters examined were Temperature (ToC), Potential Hydrogen (pH), Conductivity (µ/S-1/cm), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS ppm), Salinity (ppm), Dissolved Oxygen (DO mg/L),Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Zinc (Zn2+) and Chloride (Cl-). Standard analytical methods were used. The analytical results of the study revealed that Temperatures are within 27 and 28oC, the pH of the samples ranges from 4.7-6.8, Conductivity falls between 785-1671 µ/S-1/cm. The TDS ranges from 550-1346 ppm, Salinity from 384-956 ppm while DO had the values ranges of 6.03-11.44 mg/l. Potassium (K+) (1.92-6.22 mg/l), Calcium (Ca2+) (14.74-18.52 mg/l), Magnesium (Mg2+) (6.34-7.81 mg/l), Zinc (Zn2+) (0.39-0.47mg/l) and Chloride (Cl-) (26.19-28.70 mg/l). It was noted that, Conductivity, salinity and DO were high compared to WHO and NSDWQ permissible standard limits. This indicated that pollution from dumpsites and erosion has great impact on the water. The mineral compositions of the water samples are within the permissible limit recommended by WHO. It is advisable that proper drainage and sewer systems should be constructed in all areas to ensure proper disposal of hazardous liquid waste, thereby preventing seepage into groundwater and surface water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fate of Citric Acid Addition on Mineral Elements Availability in Calcareous Soils of Jordan Valley

Zohuir A. Al-balawna, Ideisan I. Abu-Abdoun

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i230389

The variation in physical and chemical properties of calcareous soils in Jordan valley has been changed dramatically due to use large amount of fertilizers in regular manner. Addition of organic acid such as citric acid (CA), can greatly change the pH which can affects plant growth and production, the weakly ionized organic acid present in the calcareous soil mostly in the form of organic matter, can play major rule in soils to raise the availability of mineral nutrients that are essential for crops, by lowering soil density, reducing soil salinity and the effects of suspended particles in soil which may hinder plant growth.

The reduction in the pH of the soil enhance the availability of nutrients such as Fe, Cu, Zn, ions, by converting the metallic insoluble state to ionic form, and thus nutrients are easily available for plants intake, the salinity of the soil did not change by increasing the citric acid concentration, while the pH of the soil decreases.

Data are presented to show the effects of citric acid (CA) concentration, ionic concentration of iron, copper, Zinc and manganese and the decrease in soil PH and soil density.