Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Carcinogenicity of PCBs in Soil Contaminated with Transformer Oil in Selected Locations in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria

E. G. Ibrahim, S. J. Salami, J. S. Gushit, M. A. Gube-Ibrahim

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330391

Soil from the vicinity of transformers installation in different locations in Jos, Plateau State was investigated for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). The assessment was carried out for both total PCBs and congeners using Agilent 6975 GC-MS in ten different locations. The soil samples were extracted with 1:1 hexane- acetone in an ultrasonic bath, concentrated and cleaned with column chromatography using silica gel and hexane as eluting solvent. The result shows five locations were polluted with PCBs that exceed the maximum limit of 2.0mg/kg as permitted by the United States Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) with the following values NGS 1 (14.25), NGS 3 (4.47), NGS 6 (9.48), NGS 9 (8.21) and NGS 10 (5.05) while the others have NGS 2 (0.64), NGS 4 (1.85), NGS 5 (0.83), NGS 7 (0.95) in mg/kg respectively, NGS 8 value was below the instrument detection limit (0.0012mg/kg). The order for the total PCBs concentration in these selected locations are NGS 1 > NGS 6 > NGS 9 > NGS 10 > NGS 3 > NGS 4 > NGS 7 > NGS 5 > NGS 2. The carcinogenicity of the dioxin-like PCBs calculated as total toxicity equivalence concentration (TTEC) in these selected locations corresponds to NGS 1 (0.00001), NGS 2 (0.0000051), NGS 3 (0.0000054), NGS 4 (0.0000051), NGS 6 (0.0000063), NGS 7 (0.0000078), NGS 9 (0.0000051) and NGS 10 (0.0000051) respectively. The total cancer risk computed by addition of cancer risk due to ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact revealed that all the locations have very low to low cancer risk compared with the value recommended by the United State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Screening of Indigenous Drought Stress Tolerant Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion (PGP) Traits: An In-vitro Study

B. Prasanna Kumar, N. Trimurtulu, A. Vijaya Gopal

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 8-21
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330392

Aims: The study aims to formulate relevant microbial consortia against drought stress mitigation with potential drought stress tolerant bacterial isolates by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) different moisture stress levels to mitigate the drought stress which can finally helpful to increase plant and soil health under adverse stress conditions.

Study Design:  Source of rhizosphere soil samples from groundnut drought prone areas of Andhra Pradesh.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Advanced Post Graduate Centre, Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Lam, Guntur, 522 034, between June 2017 and July 2020.

Methodology: Isolated strains were also tested for further drought stress screening by polyethylene glycol 6000 In-vitro screening was done for different plant growth promotion activities i.e. phosphate solubilization, IAA production, ammonia production, ACC deaminase activity, HCN production and catalase. HCN production, catalase positive, colony morphology, Gram staining and biochemical tests.

Results: Fifty-one efficient bacterial isolates were obtained from drought prone rhizosphere soils of groundnut. Isolated strains were also tested for further drought stress screening by polyethylene glycol 6000 at 0% (-0.05 MPa), 10% (-0.65 MPa), 20% (-1.57 MPa), 30% (-2.17 MPa) and 40% (-2.70 MPa). Thirty-seven bacterial isolates were further found to have an enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity which improved plant growth during stress conditions. The In-vitro screening was done for different plant growth promotion activities, twelve bacterial isolates were positive for phosphate solubilization. IAA production was shown by almost all the bacterial isolates. Three isolates were positive for ammonia production. Two isolates were positive for HCN production and all the isolates were found to be catalase positive. Seven isolates were showing maximum plant growth promotion activities and further identified based on colony morphology, Gram staining and biochemical tests.

Conclusion: This study suggests that 51 bacterial isolates exhibited the highest tolerance to moisture stress under In-vitro, these are screened and considered as potential isolates against plant growth promoting characteristics. Plant growth promoting bacteria that can modulate physiological response for water shortage, enhanced water or nutrient uptake and transpiration, induction of plant growth hormone signaling and increased antioxidase activity and photosynthetic rate thereby ensuring plant survival under such stressful conditions. In regard to isolates having PGP properties from the research work presented could be studied further under In-vitro and in vivo conditions from different soils with several crops for confirming their use as bio inoculants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laundry Soap Production from the Respective Tallows of Goat, Sheep and Cow: Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties for the Best

Abdullahi Nwaha Isah, Umi Aisah Asli, Nasiru Audu, Sadiku Itopa Bello, Jibrin Waziri, Siyaka Omonowo Salihu

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330393

Tallow mainly consists of triglycerides, whose major constituents are derived from stearic, palmitic and oleic acids, and its usage reduces production cost of soap, adds lather stability and hardness to soap. Laundry soaps were produced with variation on amount of tallow (sourced from cow, sheep and goat) and labelled as A, B, C, D and E formulations. The respective tallows were characterized in terms of saponification value and acid value and determined to be 192.14 and 2.24mg KOH/g (cow tallow); 200.56 and 2.38mgKOH/g (sheep tallow) and 197.75 and 1.96 mgKOH/g (goat tallow). The physicochemical properties of soap which determine its area of usage and cleansing properties were determined. The properties considered in this work were hardness, moisture content, foam capacity, pH, free acidity content, and total fatty matter. The hardness, moisture content, foam capacity, pH, free acidity content and total fatty matter of the produced soaps were determined and ranged between mild-deep penetration level; 11-21%; 1-9cm; 8-10.5; 0.16-0.82% and 40-86% respectively. From the comparative analysis, soap made from sheep tallow has the lowest penetration level (with formulations B and E), lowest free acidity content of 0.16% (with formulation A), highest total fatty matter of 86% (using formulation E), highest foam height of 9cm (with formulation A), lowest moisture content of 11% (with formulation A) and mild alkalinity of 8 (with formulations A, B and E). These results showed that the soaps produced from sheep tallow are the best in terms of hardness, lather and skin friendliness, due to its high degree of longer carbon chain lengths of fatty acids. These values satisfy the standard limit set for good quality laundry soap by National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control and Encyclopaedia of Industrial Chemical Analysis, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Novel Rapid Validated TLC- Densitometry for the Simultaneous Determination of Three Co-formulated Drugs used for Deep Tooth Inflammation Treatment

Mohammad Marouf, Ghoufran Kawas, Amir Alhaj Sakur

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330394

A new use of a tertiary antibiotic combination of ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and metronidazole is currently being studied as an intracranial (intracranial) drug in an effort to disinfect the root canal system to revitalize the tooth with dead pulp. It is necessary to developing analytical method for the new drug combination.

Herein we developed a rapid validated thin-layer chromatography (TLC)‒densitometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 3 co-formulated drugs used for deep tooth inflammation Treatment. The studied drugs are Ciprofloxacin.HCL (CIP), Clindamycin phosphate (CLI) and Metronidazole(MET). The separation was achieved by using silica gel 60 F254 plates (20*20 cm) as stationary Phase and the developing system of Dichloromethane:n-Hexane:methanol:Ethylamine:Triethylamine (40:20:32:3:5)v/v.

Densitometry scanning was performed at 220 nm. The Rf values of CIP, CLI and MET were found to be 0.588, 0.776 and 0.898 respectively.

The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and was successfully applied for the analysis of ternary lab made mixture, containing the cited ternary mixture without interference from excipients. There is no previously published TLC–densitometry method for the determination of the previously mentioned ternary mixture. The suggested method is novel, rapid, accurate, reproducible and of low cost, so; thus, it can be used for quality control analysis of these formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Levels and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metals in Soils around Onne Landfill, Rivers State, Nigeria

P. Audu, R. A. Wuana

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 43-59
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330395

This study evaluated selected heavy metals’ levels in soil around the landfill in Onne Rivers State, Nigeria. It also examines potential human health risks due to exposure to the contaminated soil. Composite samples of soils from the northern, southern, eastern and western domains of the landfill were collected, processed, and analysed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and their human health risks were evaluated. The heavy metals’ levels in the soils around the four domains were in the order Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd>As. Children and adult ingestion, inhalation and dermal hazards quotients for the selected metals in the four domains were below unity ranging from {(HQchildren 2.71 x 10-10 As inhalation in the eastern domain to 9.24 x 10-1 Pb ingestion in the northern domain); HQadult 1.55 x 10-10 As inhalation in the eastern domain to 9.90 x 10-2 Pb ingestion in the northern domain)}. Adult ingestion, inhalation and dermal cancer risks (CRadult) were within acceptable limits, ranging from 1.99 x 10-13 As inhalation in the eastern domain to 4.68 x10-5 Cr ingestion in the northern domain. However, ingestion cancer risk for children (CRchildren) due to exposure to Ni and Cr in the four domains were above tolerable limit ranging from {(Ni - 2.00 x 10-4 in the southern domain to 3.11 x 10-4 in the northern domain); Cr – 2.95 x 10-4 in the southern domain to 4.37 x 10-4 in the northern domain)}. Children and adult hazards index due to exposure to the selected metals were also less than 1.0, ranging from children exposure to Ni (5.91 x 10-3) in the southern domain and Pb (9.25 x 10-1) in the northern domain to adult exposure to Ni (6.50 x 10-4 in the southern domain and Pb (9.94 x 10-2) in the northern domain. Total cancer risks (TCRadult) due to adult exposure to the metals were within tolerable limit, ranging from Cd (4.93 x 10-7) in the southern domain to Cr (5.01 x 10-5) in the northern domain. And total cancer risk (TCRchildren) due to children exposure to Ni and Cr were above tolerable limit, ranging from {Ni (2.40 x 10-4 in the southern domain to 3.74 x 10-4 in the northern domain); Cr (3.54 x 10-4 in the southern domain to 5.24 x 10-4 in the northern domain)}. The values for both non carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were higher for children than those for adult. Reasons for this attributes and improvement actions were suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Integrated Weed Management Practices on Dry Matter Production and Crop Nutrient Uptake in Machine Transplanted Rice

B. Raviteja, K. P Vani, M. Yakadri, T. Ramprakash

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 78-83
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330398

A field experiment entitled Weed management in machine transplanted rice” was conducted during kharif season, 2019 at Agricultural Research Institute Farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the influence of different weed management practices on growth and nutrient uptake machine transplanted rice crop. The results revealed that among different weed management treatments hand weeding at 20, 40 DAT (T8) recorded significantly higher dry matter production at harvest (14.7 t ha-1) which was at par with T4 i.e. penoxsulam 1.02% W/W + cyhalofop-p-butyl 5.1% W/W @ 153 g ha-1 at 2-3 leaf stage of weeds + power weeder at 30-40 DAT (14.3 t ha-1). Hand weeding at 20, 40 DAT had significantly increased the crop nutrient uptake at harvest (147.0: 16.9: 153.6 NPK kg ha-1), statistically at par with penoxsulam 1.02% W/W + cyhalofop-p-butyl 5.1% W/W @ 153 g ha-1 at 2-3 leaf stage of weeds + power weeder at 30-40 DAT (142.6: 16.0: 145.4 NPK kg ha-1) while lowest was recorded with weedy check (91.9: 9.9: 89.2 NPK kg ha-1).

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Molecular Docking

Khemnar Manisha Dnyandev, Galave Vishal Babasaheb, Kulkarni Vaishali Chandrashekhar, Menkudale Amruta Chandrakant, Otari Kishor Vasant

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 60-68
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330396

Molecular docking is computational modeling of structure complexes formed by two or more interacting molecule. The goal of molecular docking is prediction of three dimensional structure of interest. Molecular docking software mostly used in drug improvement. Molecules and effortless entrance to structural databases has befallen essential mechanism. Molecular Docking provide a collection of expensive tools for drug design and analysis. Simple prophecy of molecules and easy way in to structural databases has become essential components on the desktop of the medicinal chemist. The most important application of molecular docking is virtual screening. A variety of docking programs were residential to imagine the three dimensional structure of the molecule and docking gain can also be analyze with the assist of dissimilar computational methods. Molecular docking is a key tool in structural molecular biology and computer-assist drug design. Docking can be worn to execute virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, rank the results, and suggest structural hypotheses of how the ligands reduce the target, which is precious in lead optimization.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Luminescent Rare Earth Complexes

Qiuxin ShenQiuxin Shen, Liting Xu, Yiyan Jiang, Yiping Zhang

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 69-77
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i330397

At present, rare earth elements are widely used in various industries. In this paper, luminescent rare earth complexes are taken as a starting point to explore the luminescence principles of several important rare earth elements. The commonly used synthesis methods of luminescent rare earth complexes in recent year are also summarized, mainly including co-precipitation method, high temperature solid phase method, sol-gel method and hydrothermal synthesis method. And prospects for the future research on luminescent rare earth complexes are made.