Open Access Short communication

A Simplified Procedure for Cellulase Filter Paper Assay

Mohamed Abdelazim

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 60-64
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i530410

A new procedures to minimize labor intensiveness and complexity that has long been recognized in cellulase filter paper activity measurement (FPAase) described by the international union of pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC) was developed. It follows the main idea of IUPAC finding at least two cellulase dilutions have optical densities slightly more and less than a reference optical density of an arbitrary fixed 2 mg absolute glucose amount after a red-ox color reaction and due to cellulase-filter paper hydrolysis. The yielding glucose amount difference as compared to this reference is expressed in terms of absorbance difference percent determined by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS), in case of cellulase is cellubiase rich. If not, an external supplemental portion should be added. The intersection of the line of these two cellulase dilutions with abscissa intersect a vertical at a hypothetical 0% absorbance difference percent corresponding to a critical cellulase dilution exactly release this fixed arbitrary 2 mg glucose amount value. The factor 0.37 of this critical cellulase dilution equals to its filter paper units expressed in FPU per ml. A cellulase Cellic Ctech2 from novozymes has been tested with this methodology giving a satisfactory results with IUPAC procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Dyes from Wastewater of Artisanal Dyeing Plants by Adsorption in a Fixed Bed Column of Deactivated Lichens

Kouassi Kouadio Dobi-Brice, Yacouba Zoungranan, Dje Daniel Yannick, Ekou Lynda, Ekou Tchirioua

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i530405

Aims: Pollution by wastewaters from various urban activities such as artisanal dyeing plants is a real problem for developing countries. The treatment of wastewater by the adsorption method is carried out by means of less expensive and available adsorbent media. Two techniques of the adsorption method are possible: adsorption in continuous mode (column adsorption) and adsorption in discontinuous mode (batch adsorption). The choice of the continuous adsorption technique is justified by its ability to process large volumes of solutions. In this study, dyes contained in wastewater from artisanal dyeing plants were removed by continuous adsorption in a fixed-bed column of deactivated lichen biomass (Parmotrema dilatatum).

Study Design: Random design

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Thermodynamics and Environmental Physico-Chemistry (University Nangui Abrogoua, Ivory Coast) between May 2020 and October 2020.

Methodology: Four (4) categories of wastewater were collected in artisanal cotton and leather dyeing plants through two municipalities of the city of Abidjan, economic capital of Ivory Coast. Two (2) wastewaters colored in blue from dyeing of cotton boubous and jeans and two (2) wastewaters colored in red from dyeing of leather jackets and bags. These wastewaters were treated through the fixed bed column of deactivated lichens. The column feed rate was set at 0, 07 L.min-1 and the adsorbent bed mass at 100 g.

Results: The study showed that, regardless of the nature of the dyed object and regardless of the target dye, the amount of dye adsorbed was better with waters of higher initial concentration. Thus the best amount of adsorbed dye is 44.444 mg.g-1 and the best removal rate is 97.9%. These values are obtained with the red wastewater of bags (RWB) treatment which was the most concentrated wastewater.

Conclusion: Good efficiency of deactivated lichen bed as adsorbent for the in situ removal of dyes from wastewater by continuous adsorption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Assessment of Organochlorine Residues in Agricultural Crops Cultivated [2020] on/around Abandoned Tin Mine Areas in Jos South LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria

V. N. Daniel, M. Charles, P. M. Dass

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 24-35
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i530407

Aims: To investigate the levels and the associated risks of 18 organochlorine residues in water, soil, sediment, and five vegetables cultivated on abandoned mine areas.

Study Design:  Water, sediment, soil (at 0 -10cm, 11 – 20cn, 21 – 30cn) and vegetables samples were collected from the abandoned tin mine agricultural areas.  These subsamples were separately combined and mixed so that a portion taken of the composite was representative of each subsample. The representative fractions were then treated for analysis

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected between February and May 2020 from the cultivated abandoned mine areas in Du, Jos - South Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria,

Methodology Liquid–liquid extractions methods were used for the extraction of pesticide residues from water, sediment, soil and vegetables. The organochlorine residues were determined by GC/MS.

Results: The physico- chemical properties data obtained for the soils/sediment from abandoned mine sites in Jos South were very heterogeneous, hence, various behaviors of pesticide residues in different soil/sediment matrices. There were no significant differences (P= 0.05) in mean minerals among the various samples. The pesticides residues detected in water were b-endosulfan, p,p-DDD and methoxychlor. The residues recorded in water were above the WHO’s MRL and Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA,) for drinking water.  Residues were also detected in sediment and soils samples. The 11 – 20cm subsoil accumulated the highest levels of the pesticide analyzed. The order of the accumulation of the OCP were; y-BHC>DDD>endrin>endrin ketone>a-endosulfan>b-endosulfan and of the sample type was water<surface soil<21-30cm subsoil<sediment<11-20cm subsoil. The results also showed the presence of OCPs in potato, tomato, cabbage, green beans, and green peppers. y-BHC  in potato, tomato and green pepper, endrin in tomato, endrin ketone in potato, tomato and green beans and d-BHC in cabbage had EDI higher levels than ADI and so their HQ greater than 1. The health risks indices (HRI) less than 1 in all other OCP residues were obtained for adults and children that would consume the vegetables except for y-BHC and endrin ketone in potato and tomato, d-BHC in cabbage, d- BHC in green pepper and green beans where the HRI is above 1 that poses health risk. There is however no significant difference (P=0.05) among vegetable types.  Positive correlation values ( 0.72, 0.83, 0.71, and 0.56) were  observed between endrin and lindane, endrin and heptachlor, endrin and DDT respectively.

Conclusion: The consumption of vegetables that contained y-BHC, d-BHC, endrin and endrin ketone whose EDI and HQ were greater than 1 could pose non-carcinogenic health risks. Adults are likely to have less health risk from consuming these vegetables. The effective monitoring of pesticide residues in food items is required. There is also need to sensitize and educate the general public especially the end-users (farmers) on management practices of pesticides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Water Contaminates by MnFe2O4 Nano Particles

Yousra Hamdy Farid

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 36-53
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i530408

Wastewater treatment and reuse is a critical issue, researchers are trying to find for cheap and reasonable advances. Adsorption is the most important strategy to evacuate heavy metals. Adsorption happens when particles diffused within the liquid stage for a period of time using the force radiating from an adjoining surface. Nickel and eosin yellow removal from industrial wastewater is considered utilizing manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4), nano particles (Nps), extracted by a co-precipitation strategy at room temperature. The variables examined are the contaminant concentration, weight, pH and contact time. Adsorption isotherm models is examined. The results reveal that the nano manganese ferrite could be adopted as a great adsorbent for the evacuation of nickel and eosin yellow from contaminated water. It is shown that the particle removal rate is diminished with an increment in initial concentration. Also, it shows as the pH increases in the water, the higher the percent removal of the contaminants. Then, it is discovered that as the adsorbent dose is increased from 1 to 3 g/l, the removal of Ni+2 increases from 37% to 60%. The removal of eosin yellow increases from 12% to 28% with an increment within the adsorbent dose from 1 to 4 g/l. The results show that adsorption using nano particles is physiosorption (physical sorption) that occurs at room temperature. The results also revealed that (MnFe2O4), nano particles was a promising adsorbent for removal of Ni ions from industrial wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis and Determination of Lead and Chromium in Commercially Purchased Vegetables (Carrots, Potatoes and Tomatoes)

J. I. Bungudu, Christine Cheesley

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i530409

Excess trace metal contamination in vegetables is a growing concern globally. Plants can be contaminated by trace metals, and it is important to understand the degree of contamination and the inherent risk. Vegetables are a staple in human diets, thus knowing the level of concentration of these metals within the diet is increasingly important. This project is designed to assess levels of trace metals in vegetables using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is an analytical technique that determines unknown concentrations of elements using absorption of light from the desired elements with the aid of the working calibration curve obtained from the series of standards. Tests were done on three different commonly vegetable available in the UK to identify whether levels of trace metals fall within safe levels for human consumption. The vegetables selected were carrots, potatoes, and tomatoes. The concentration within organic vegetables did not significantly differ from the non-organic ones, though the results show, in some cases higher concentration of chromium in the potato and carrot peel. This is worthy of note from a health and nutrition perspective especially for those people that have a deficiency of these trace metals in their body or conversely wanted to manage their intake. The mean concentrations of these metals are in decreasing order of >Pb>Cr in most vegetables but in some Cr>Pb. The good thing is that the concentrations of these metals in vegetables purchased in the UK all fall below the maximum limits set by WHO/FAO and are thus considered safe for human consumption.

Open Access Review Article

Importance of Some Transition Metals and their Biological Role: A Review

Mohd. Washid Khan, R. P. Mishra, Bhavesh Patel, Pankjesh Mishra, Deepanshu Vishwakarma

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i530406

Transition Metal Chemistry is an international journal which deals with all aspects of the preparation of transition metal-based molecular compounds as well as including their physical, structural, kinetic, catalytic and biological properties, and their use in chemical synthesis as well as their application in the widest context, their role in naturally occurring systems and more.