Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Spectrophotometric Determination and Kinetic Study of Sulfamethoxazole in Pure and Tablet Formulation using 9-chloroacridine Reagent

Alaa A. Ahmed, Theia’a N. Al-Sabha, Emad A. S. Al-Hyali

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i1030434

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for analysis of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in pure and dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction of the SMX with 9-chloroacridine (9-CA) reagent in organic and acidic medium, to produce a yellow product having maximum absorption at 448 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 1-30 μ with molar absorptivity of 1.63x104 with good detection and quantification limits. Accuracy (Average recovery %) and precision are 98.43% and 0.651, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for determination of Sulfamethoxazole in its commercial dosage form as tablet and agree well with the official method.

The equilibrium constant and the thermodynamic functions (ΔHo, ΔGº and ΔSº) of the  complex formation were estimated. The study revealed that the complex formation could occur spontaneously, the type of interacting forces between SMX and 9-CA are physical is nature and association increases the order of the studied systems.

The results of kinetic parameters indicated that, the reaction is pseudo first order with respect to SMX. The rate constant at various temperatures and the thermodynamic functions of activation were determined. Theoretical parameters were calculated by applying the semi-empirical Austin method (AM1). These parameters are helped to suggest reaction mechanism and supporting other results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eutrophication of a River Impacted by Agricultural Activities (N’zi River, Côte D’ivoire)

Maley-Pacôme Soro, Ahbeauriet Ahmed Ouattara, Koffi Martin N’Goran, Koffi Marcellin Yao, N’guessan Louis Berenger Kouassi, Thomas Diaco

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i1030436

Water eutrophication is a global environmental problem. In Côte d'Ivoire, no data is available to predict this phenomenon in rivers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of agricultural activities on the eutrophication phenomenon of the N'zi River in Côte d'Ivoire. The approach used focused on two points. The first one was to determine the different dissolved forms of phosphorus and nitrogen in the water of the N'zi River using AFNOR methods. The second focused on the mobility of phosphorus in sediments using the sequential extraction procedure of Williams. Results show that the inorganic phosphorus concentrations (IP) in sediments decrease in favor of contents in the water. Moreover, nitrate ions (NO3-) quantitatively dominates the nitrogenous forms in water. These results are attributable to the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture, the leaching of cropland and/or contamination by human or animal waste. The phosphorus sequential extraction shows that 29 to 72% of the iron-bound bioavailable P (Fe-P) in sediments is likely to be mobilized into the water column and contributes to the N'zi River eutrophication. Therefore, an awareness and monitoring program must be put in place to reduce the nutrients inputs in the N'zi River upstream.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Effect of Mixed Anion and Mixed Metal on Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Aqueous Solutions

Lovell Agwaramgbo, Olabimpe Olafuyi, Jailen Doyle, Onome Okeh

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i1030437

Aims: To investigate the effect of variation of metals (Cu vs Zn) and anions (nitrate vs sulfate) in heavy metal remediation by charcoal and coffee waste from contaminated water.

Study Design: Aqueous solution of single and mixed nitrate and sulfate salts of copper and zinc were respectively treated with charcoal and coffee waste for 12 hr and the residual metal concentration and percent metal removal were determined.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted in the Chemistry Department at Dillard University between January 2021 and November 2021

Methodology: Coffee waste (2 grams) and charcoal (2 grams) were respectively mixed with 40 ml of 500 parts per million (ppm) of each of the following combination of metal solutions: Cu(NO3)2; CuSO4; Zn(NO3)2; ZnSO4; Cu(NO3)2 and Zn(NO3)2; CuSO4 and ZnSO4; Zn(NO3)2 and ZnSO4; Cu(NO3)2 and CuSO4; Cu(NO3)2 and ZnSO4; Zn(NO3)2 and CuSO4. Each solution was agitated for 12 hours at room temperature. The mixtures were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and residual copper and zinc were analyzed. The results showed that copper was preferentially adsorbed by coffee waste compared to zinc in all binary metal (copper-zinc) solutions. Copper removal by coffee waste from CuSO4 and CuSO4-ZnSO4 were 43.9% and 65.5% respectively. Zinc removal from ZnSO4 and CuSO4-ZnSO4 by coffee waste was 34.79% and 20.3% respectively. Conversely, the zinc removal from mixed copper-zinc salt solutions, CuSO4-ZnSO4 and Cu(NO3)2-Zn(NO3)2 were 70.5% and 79.9% respectively.

Conclusion: Metal type can affect the extent of metal removal from mixed metal solutions. In this research, the copper was 21% more effectively removed from the mixed metal solutions than from a single metal-single anion solutions. In addition, zinc removal was11-14% suppressed in binary metal salt solutions compared to its removal from single-metal-single anion salt solutions. The anion type does not influence metal removed from single metal-single anion salt solutions. However, in the mixed metal-mixed anion systems, more metals were removed when the anion is a nitrate than when it is a sulfate, especially with coffee waste as adsorbent. 9.4% more zinc was removed from CuSO4-Zn(NO3)2,79.9%) than from ZnSO4-Cu(NO3)2, 70.5%). Thus, both metal and anion type affect extent of metal removal from mixed metal mixed anion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Total Phenolics Content and Antioxydants Potential of Different parts of Grangea maderaspatana from Burkina Faso

Yougoubo Abdoulaye, Dabire Constantin M, Bationo K. Rémy, Hema Adama, Pale Eloi, Nebie C. H. Roger, S. P. Danhabal

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 36-44
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i1030439

This work is a contribution to a better use of Grangea maderaspatana belonging to family Asteracea as a medicinal plant for its phytochemicals.  Extracts of different parts of Grangea maderaspatana were thus screened for their phytochemicals, including phenolics, tannins and flavonoids contents and total antioxidant contents.

The extracts were obtained from the roots, flowers, leafy branches and the whole plant using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The phytochemical screening was carried out by means of thin layer chromatography, colorimetric and precipitation reactions. Total phenolics contents, total flavonids et totat antioxidants contents were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods.

The phytochemical screening revealed that G. maderaspatana different parts contained phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols and terpenes at different content. Total phenolics contents ranged from 0.051 to 93.455 mg GAE/g of extract in dichloromethane extract of leafy branches and in the ethyl acetate extract of flowers, respectively. Those of total flavonoids ranged from 82.984 in the roots methanolic extract to 753.337 mg QE/g in the ethyl acetate extract of flowers. Total antioxidant contents, assessed by ,  and  methods are highest in ethyl acetate extracts compared to others extraction solvents.

maderaspatana contains a variety of secondary metabolites whose levels vary according to the plant part used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Theoretical Study of the Charge Transfer of Five Derivatives of Tetrathiafulvalene Complexed with Unsubstituted Tetracyanoquinodimethane

Fatogoma Diarrassouba, Kafoumba Bamba, Mawa Koné, Ahissan Donatien Ehouman, Nahossé Ziao

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/irjpac/2021/v22i1030440

Our work consisted of a theoretical study of the charge transfer of five Tetrathiafulvalene- Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) complexes. Global reactivity and charge transfer descriptors were determined at theory level B3LYP/6-311G (d,p). These descriptors revealed that the Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) has a reducing character when the Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) has an oxidizing character, the oxidation-reduction reaction between these two molecules is a polar reaction characterized by a high charge transfer, the electronic flow moves from TTF to TCNQ and the conductivity of these charge transfer complexes increases when the HOMOTTF-LUMOTCNQ energy gap decreases. When the dipole moment of TTF molecules increases, the conductivity of the complexes they form with unsubstituted TCNQ increases and leads to high charge transfer. We intend to deepen this study by proposing new complexes with more improved electrical properties.